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Project Title:  Key Contributors to the Maintenance and Regulation of Team Function and Performance on Long Duration Exploration Missions Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2017 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/01/2013  
End Date: 09/01/2017  
Task Last Updated: 12/05/2017 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Binsted, Kim  Ph.D. / University of Hawaii 
Address:  Hawaii Hall 202, 2500 Campus Rd 
 
Honolulu , HI 96822-2217 
Email: binsted@hawaii.edu 
Phone: 808-398-1300  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Hawaii 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Hunter, Jean  Cornell University 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: June 2014 report--Added collaborator: Mathias Basner. June 2016 report--Added collaborators: Jay Buckey, Abigail Fellows, Raphael Rose. Added project manager: Bryan Caldwell.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX13AM78G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2012 Crew Health NNJ12ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX13AM78G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team Gap 01:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and life cycle of the team for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(2) Team Gap 02:We need to identify a set of validated measures, based on the key indicators of team function, to effectively monitor and measure team health and performance fluctuations during autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Extended to 9/01/2017 per NSSC information (Ed., 8/24/17)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/17/17)

NOTE: Extended to 7/31/2017 per NSSC information (Ed., 5/5/16)

Task Description: HI-SEAS (Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation) is a habitat on an isolated Mars-like site on the Mauna Loa side of the saddle area on the Big Island of Hawaii at approximately 8200 feet above sea level. HI-SEAS is unique, in addition to its setting in a distinctive analog environment, as: - we select the crew to meet our research needs (in serendipitous analogs, such as Antarctic stations, crew selection criteria are not controlled by researchers); - the conditions (habitat, mission, communications, etc.) are explicitly designed to be similar to those of a planetary exploration mission; - the site is accessible year round, allowing longer duration isolated and confined environment studies than at other locations; - the Mars-like environment offers the potential for analog tasks, such as geological field work by human explorers and/or robots. The ability to select crew members to meet research needs and isolate them in a managed simulation performing under specific mission profiles makes HI-SEAS ideal for detailed studies in space-flight crew dynamics, behaviors, roles, and performance, especially for long-duration missions. To take advantage of this capability, the research in this proposal addresses the Integrated Research Plan (IRP) Gap Team1: “We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and life cycle of the team for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions.” In particular, we will conduct a ground-based investigation to measure and track the factors expected to have significant impacts on team function and performance, and assess that impact, over three high-autonomy missions of differing durations (four, eight, and twelve months). During crew selection for each mission we will measure participants’ cognitive capacities, communication skills, preferred communication strategies, interpersonal strategies, coping strategies, mission and crew role specific knowledge, and planning and collaborative problem solving ability. During the missions we will monitor crew communication, communication strategies, crew coping strategies, crew work load and job sharing, and conflict resolution and conflict management, as well as taking several measures of crew performance. Finally, we will examine how each of the factors affects crew performance during the missions. Our goals are: 1. To measure key factors that may contribute to crew function and performance over three high-autonomy missions of varying length. 2. To assess the impact of these factors on crew function and performance. 3. To assess the relative impact of these factors for different duration missions. 4. To suggest potential countermeasures (e.g., crew selection strategies) and interventions (e.g., responses to deteriorating crew cohesion) to maximize crew function and performance.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The ability to track team cohesion, process, and performance could benefit other teams in long-duration isolated and confined environments (e.g., military deployments, Antarctic winter-over crews).

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2017 
Task Progress: We have conducted five long-duration analog missions at HI-SEAS (two 4-months, two 8-months, and one 12-months in length), three under this grant. The third of the missions covered by this grant was twelve months in duration and finished in August 2016.

Nine sub-studies were completed:

- Development of an Objective Behavioral Assay of Cohesion to Enhance Composition, Task Performance, and Psychosocial Adaptation in Long-Term Work Groups (Roma)

- Consideration of Conflict Management Approach Behaviors as Possible Indicators of Cohesion Decrements in Teams Operating in Isolated, Confined Extreme Environments over Long Duration (Bedwell)

- Measuring, Monitoring, and Regulating Teamwork for Long Duration Missions (Kozlowski)

- AD-ASTRA (Automated Detection of Attitudes and States through Transaction Recordings Analysis) at HI-SEAS (Wu)

- ANSIBLE (A Network of Social Interactions for Bilateral Life Enhancement) at HI-SEAS (Wu and Schmer-Galunder)

- HI-SEAS Geology Tasks Crew Performance Analysis (Shiro)

- Autonomous Stress Management and Resilience Training for Optimal Performance (SMART-OP): HI-SEAS Implementation (Rose)

- Autonomous Behavior Health Countermeasures for Spaceflight: Evaluation at HI-SEAS (Buckey)

- Cognitive Performance in Long-Duration Mars Simulations at HI-SEAS (Bassner)

The three missions covered by this grant added up to 24 months of analog mission operations, collecting data under the above nine core sub-studies (as well as additional opportunistic research not reported here). We are still in the process of analyzing data within sub-studies, and integrating results across them.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 07/06/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Anderson A, Cowan D, Fellows A, Binsted K, Hegel M, Buckey J. "Autonomous Behavioral Health Countermeasures: Virtual Space Station." 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017.

2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bedwell WL, Roma PG, Fletcher KA. "Long Duration Space Exploration: Does Cohesion Matter?" Presentation at the 32nd Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Orlando, FL, April 27-29, 2017.

32nd Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Orlando, FL, April 27-29, 2017. , Apr-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Binsted K, Basner M, Bedwell WL, Bishop S, Caldwell B, Chang D, Hunter J, Kozlowski SWJ, Roma PG, Shiro B, Wu P. "Investigations at HI-SEAS Into Team Function and Performance On, and Crew Composition For, Long Duration Exploration Missions." Poster session at 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017.

2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bleacher J, Shiro BR, Young KE, Rowland SK, Wilson EL, DiGregorio J, Caldwell BJ, Binsted K, Glotch T. "EVA Science at the HI-SEAS Planetary Analog Site in Hawai‘i: Balancing Field Objectives during Long Duration Missions." NASA Exploration Science Forum, Moffett Field, CA, July 18-20, 2017.

NASA Exploration Science Forum, Moffett Field, CA, July 18-20, 2017. , Jul-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bleacher J, Shiro BR, McAdam A, Young KE, Johnson S, Garry WB, Whelley P, Rowland SK, Schmerr N, Needham D, Knudson C, Andrejkovicova S, Binsted K, Caldwell BJ, Glotch T. "Studies of Young Hawaiian Lava Tubes: Linking Geophysics, Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Habitability in Basaltic Subsurface Environments on Mars." 48th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, The Woodlands, TX, March 20-24, 2017.

48th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, The Woodlands, TX, March 20-24, 2017. Abstract 2634. , Mar-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Cowan D, Anderson A, Buckey J, Fellows A, Binsted K, Love R. "Evaluation of Virtual Nature for Relaxation in Isolated, Confined Environments." 88th Aerospace Medical Association Annual Meeting, Denver, CO, April 30-May 4, 2017.

88th Aerospace Medical Association Annual Meeting, Denver, CO, April 30-May 4, 2017. , Apr-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Roma PG, Waggoner LB, Hienz RD, Binsted K, Hursh SR. "Cooperation, Cohesion, and 'Social Personality' in Isolated, Confined, and Extreme Environments." Presentation at 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017.

2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Shiro B. "HI-SEAS as a Testbed for Living and Working on Other Worlds." International Moonbase Summit, Waikoloa, HI, October 1-5, 2017.

International Moonbase Summit, Waikoloa, HI, October 1-5, 2017. , Oct-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Shiro B, Rowland S, Bleacher J, Garry WB, Whelley P, Schmerr N. "Geophysical mapping of a lava tube cave on Mauna Loa volcano, Hawai‘i." GSA Cordilleran Section Meeting, Honolulu, HI, May 23-25, 2017.

GSA Cordilleran Section Meeting, Honolulu, HI, May 23-25, 2017. , May-2017

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Engler ST, Binsted K, Leung H. "HI-SEAS habitat energy requirements and forecasting." Acta Astronautica. 2019 Sep;162:50-5. Available online 2019 May 31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2019.05.049 , Sep-2019
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Wu P, Morie J, Wall P, Ott T, Binsted K. "ANSIBLE: Virtual reality for behavioral health." Procedia Eng. 2016;159:108-11. Available online Sept 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.08.132 , Sep-2016
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Frick SE, Fletcher KA, Ramsay PS, Bedwell WL. "Understanding team maladaptation through the lens of the four R's of adaptation." Hum Resour Manage Rev. 2018 Dec;28(4):411-22. Epub 2017 Aug 31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2017.08.005 , Dec-2018
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Lyons KD, Slaughenhaupt RM, Mupparaju SH, Lim JS, Anderson AA, Stankovic AS, Cowan DR, Fellows AM, Binsted KA, Buckey JC. "Autonomous psychological support for isolation and confinement." Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2020 Nov;91(11):876-85. https://doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.5705.2020 ; PMID: 33334408 , Nov-2020
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Anderson AP, Fellows AM, Binsted KA, Hegel MT, Buckey JC. "Autonomous, computer-based behavioral health countermeasure evaluation at HI-SEAS Mars Analog." Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance. 2016 Nov;87(11):912-20. https://dx.doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.4676.2016 ; PubMed PMID: 27779949 , Nov-2016
Books/Book Chapters Roma PG, Bedwell WL. "Key factors and threats to team dynamics in long-duration extreme environments." in "Research on Managing Groups and Teams (Vol. 18), Team Dynamics Over Time: Advances in Theory, Methods, and Practice." Ed. E. Salas, W.B. Vessey, L.B. Landon. Bingley, UK: Emerald Publishing Limited, 2017. p. 155-187. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1534-085620160000018007 , Jul-2017
Project Title:  Key Contributors to the Maintenance and Regulation of Team Function and Performance on Long Duration Exploration Missions Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2016 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/01/2013  
End Date: 09/01/2017  
Task Last Updated: 09/06/2016 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Binsted, Kim  Ph.D. / University of Hawaii 
Address:  Hawaii Hall 202, 2500 Campus Rd 
 
Honolulu , HI 96822-2217 
Email: binsted@hawaii.edu 
Phone: 808-398-1300  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Hawaii 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Hunter, Jean  Cornell University 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: June 2014 report--Added collaborator: Mathias Basner. June 2016 report--Added collaborators: Jay Buckey, Abigail Fellows, Raphael Rose. Added project manager: Bryan Caldwell.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX13AM78G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2012 Crew Health NNJ12ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX13AM78G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team Gap 01:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and life cycle of the team for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(2) Team Gap 02:We need to identify a set of validated measures, based on the key indicators of team function, to effectively monitor and measure team health and performance fluctuations during autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Extended to 9/01/2017 per NSSC information (Ed., 8/24/17)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/17/17)

NOTE: Extended to 7/31/2017 per NSSC information (Ed., 5/5/16)

Task Description: HI-SEAS (Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation) is a habitat on an isolated Mars-like site on the Mauna Loa side of the saddle area on the Big Island of Hawaii at approximately 8200 feet above sea level. HI-SEAS is unique, in addition to its setting in a distinctive analog environment, as: - we select the crew to meet our research needs (in serendipitous analogs, such as Antarctic stations, crew selection criteria are not controlled by researchers); - the conditions (habitat, mission, communications, etc.) are explicitly designed to be similar to those of a planetary exploration mission; - the site is accessible year round, allowing longer duration isolated and confined environment studies than at other locations; - the Mars-like environment offers the potential for analog tasks, such as geological field work by human explorers and/or robots. The ability to select crew members to meet research needs and isolate them in a managed simulation performing under specific mission profiles makes HI-SEAS ideal for detailed studies in space-flight crew dynamics, behaviors, roles, and performance, especially for long-duration missions. To take advantage of this capability, the research in this proposal addresses the Integrated Research Plan (IRP) Gap Team1: “We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and life cycle of the team for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions.” In particular, we will conduct a ground-based investigation to measure and track the factors expected to have significant impacts on team function and performance, and assess that impact, over three high-autonomy missions of differing durations (four, eight, and twelve months). During crew selection for each mission we will measure participants’ cognitive capacities, communication skills, preferred communication strategies, interpersonal strategies, coping strategies, mission and crew role specific knowledge, and planning and collaborative problem solving ability. During the missions we will monitor crew communication, communication strategies, crew coping strategies, crew work load and job sharing, and conflict resolution and conflict management, as well as taking several measures of crew performance. Finally, we will examine how each of the factors affects crew performance during the missions. Our goals are: 1. To measure key factors that may contribute to crew function and performance over three high-autonomy missions of varying length. 2. To assess the impact of these factors on crew function and performance. 3. To assess the relative impact of these factors for different duration missions. 4. To suggest potential countermeasures (e.g., crew selection strategies) and interventions (e.g., responses to deteriorating crew cohesion) to maximize crew function and performance.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The ability to track team cohesion, process, and performance could benefit other teams in long-duration isolated and confined environments (e.g., military deployments, Antarctic winter-over crews).

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2016 
Task Progress: As of May 2016, two of the three HI-SEAS missions (four months and eight months) planned under this award have been completed, and the third (twelve months) is under way, scheduled to finish August 28, 2016.

The current status of the research is described below, as a set of sub-projects. However, please note that all data will shared across projects and, once the final twelve-month mission is complete, we will be able to integrate this data for higher-level analysis. For all sub-projects, data collection is complete for the 4- and 8-months mission, and ongoing for the 12-month mission.

TRACKING LONG-TERM DYNAMICS

This research study investigates how people react, cope, and adjust to working together in ICE (isolated, confined, extreme) environments. In the environment, much like an astronaut, participants will work collaboratively with team members to accomplish a mission that requires interdependence and teamwork. We are interested in the ebb and flow of team member perceptions and reactions throughout the ICE experience. In addition, we wish to better understand the formation, maintenance, and restoration of team cohesion. Participants wear a commercially available social interaction badge that captures their interactions with other participants.

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT AND EVA (Extravehicular Activity) DEBRIEFS

For this study, we conduct a series of end-of-mission debriefs, to develop a timeline of crew conflict and conflict management processes. We qualitatively analyze all in-mission EVA crew debriefs, based on existing theories of task/relationship team conflict resolution processes, to identify potential decrements to cohesion across mission duration using behavioral coding (e.g., behavioral indicators of "openness" approaches and "avoid" approaches). We then compare data from EVA (Extra Vehicular Activity) debriefs to the overall conflict timeline to map conflict resolution processes to self-reported periods of heightened conflict and heightened cohesion decrements.

TEAM PERFORMANCE TASK (TPT)

The goal of this protocol is to characterize social dynamics, team performance capacity, and biopsychosocial adaptation over time in the isolated, confined, and extreme space analog environment of HI-SEAS.

The primary research activity for this protocol is regular sessions administering our prototype "Team Performance Task" (TPT) software, an objective behavioral economic assay of cooperation, productivity, and fairness in small groups. In addition to the TPT sessions, the Crew also completes an online "Dyad Questionnaire." This survey lists a wide variety of interaction patterns (e.g., professional/collegial, personal/friendly, antagonistic/conflict), and is administered in a sociometric format where each Crew member selects the applicable interaction pattern(s) during the past week for all possible interpersonal pairings (dyads).

ANSIBLE

ANSIBLE (A Network of Social Interactions for Bilateral Life Enhancement), named after a fictitious interstellar communications device from science fiction, opportunistically combines Virtual Environments (VEs) and Virtual Agents (VAs) and incorporates evidence-based psychological health promoting strategies to augment asynchronous communications, increase connectedness between crew members and their informal social support system (e.g., friends, family, colleagues), enhance awareness of psychological health, and combat social and sensory monotony.

ANSIBLE is a multi-modal toolset that leverages evidence based wellness promoting strategies to 1) augment asynchronous communications using VEs and facilitate novel interaction methods beyond email and video playback, 2) use the inherently immersive and stimuli rich nature of VEs to counteract sensory monotony, and 3) leverage VEs and intelligent VAs to provide companions and advisors to combat social monotony. Further, VAs capable of detecting changes in astronaut psychosocial states can increase astronaut self-awareness, suggest countermeasures, and provide rehearsal scenarios to maintain and enhance interpersonal skills.

The ANSIBLE system was deployed at HI-SEAS for the beginning of the current twelve-month mission, and has been collecting data throughout.

COGNITION

We measure a range of cognitive functions using Cognition, a comprehensive, software-based, neurocognitive toolkit. The ten Cognition tests include (but go beyond) what is currently measured by WinSCAT and the Reaction Self Test on the International Space Station (ISS), and take 20-30 minutes to complete. The toolkit will permit rapid assessment of performance in cognitive, social-emotional, and sensorimotor domains. The Cognition toolkit has been validated in a NASA ground-based study as well as on the ISS. We use these measures as base controls to control for the effects of other factors (e.g., emotional state, crew cohesion) on performance.

SMART-OP

SMART-OP (Stress Management and Resilience Training for Optimal Performance) is a self-guided, multimedia, interactive, computer-based, stress management and resilience training program based on evidenced-based cognitive-behavioral principles and emotion regulation approaches. The main aim of this project is to evaluate SMART-OP for acceptability and usability in a space analog environment with a sample of individuals participating in 8- and 12-month missions at the HI-SEAS facility.

VIRTUAL SPACE STATION (VSS)

Living in an ICE analog can induce conflict, stress, and depression. Computer-based behavioral health countermeasures are appealing for training and treatment in ICE because they provide confidentiality and do not require communication with the outside environment. Autonomous, confidential, training, and treatment for behavioral health issues will need to be a critical component of long duration spaceflight travel. This work provides an evaluation of such a tool in a relevant ICE environment.

We evaluated the Virtual Space Station (VSS), a suite of interactive computer-delivered psychological training and treatment programs, during the eight-month HI-SEAS mission. This evaluation continues in the 12-month mission, which is currently ongoing.

GEOLOGY FIELD TASKS

One goal of HI-SEAS is to evaluate crew performance over missions of increasing length. To meet this objective, a team of geologists works with the research team to develop geology field tasks for the crew to complete in the area surrounding the habitat. These team-oriented tasks are designed to be gradable with quantifiable metrics so that meaningful conclusions about crew performance can be drawn. The tasks are designed to specify what the crew should accomplish, without telling them how, in order to test the crew’s effectiveness in managing the tasks under high-autonomy conditions.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 07/06/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Caldwell B, Roma P, Binsted K, Shiro B. "Team Cohesion, Performance, and Biopsychosocial Adaptation Research at the Hawai'i Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS)." 31st Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Anaheim, California, April 14-16, 2016.

31st Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Anaheim, California, April 14-16, 2016. http://hdl.handle.net/2292/28717 , Apr-2016

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Anderson A, Fellows A, Hegel M, Binsted K, Buckey J. "Evaluation of an Autonomous, Computer-Based Behavioral Health Countermeasure in an Isolated, Confined Environment." 87th Aerospace Medical Association Annual Meeting, Atlantic City, NJ, April 24-28, 2016.

Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance. 2016 Mar;87(3). , Mar-2016

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Anderson A, Fellows A, Hege, M, Binsted K, Buckey J. "Autonomous Behavioral Health Countermeasures for Spaceflight -- Virtual Space Station." 2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016.

2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016. , Feb-2016

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bedwell W, Roma P, Binsted K. "Crew Cohesion on LDEM: A Longitudinal Look at Conflict." 2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016.

2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016. , Feb-2016

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Binsted K, Basner M, Bedwell W, Caldwell B, Chang D, Hunter J, Kozlowski S, Nasrini J, Roma P, Santoro J, Seibert M, Shiro B, Wu P. "Investigations at HI-SEAS into Team Function and Performance on Long Duration Exploration Missions." 2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016.

2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016. , Feb-2016

Significant Media Coverage Associated Press. "Scientists Exit Hawaii Dome After Yearlong Mars Simulation." New York Times August 28, 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/2016/08/28/us/ap-us-space-simulation.html , Aug-2016
Significant Media Coverage Herscher R. " 'Mars Mission' Crew Emerges from Yearlong Simulation in Hawaii." National Public Radio, August 29, 2016. http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/08/29/491794937/mars-mission-crew-emerges-from-yearlong-simulation-in-hawaii , Aug-2016
Project Title:  Key Contributors to the Maintenance and Regulation of Team Function and Performance on Long Duration Exploration Missions Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2015 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/01/2013  
End Date: 07/31/2017  
Task Last Updated: 06/04/2015 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Binsted, Kim  Ph.D. / University of Hawaii 
Address:  Hawaii Hall 202, 2500 Campus Rd 
 
Honolulu , HI 96822-2217 
Email: binsted@hawaii.edu 
Phone: 808-398-1300  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Hawaii 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Hunter, Jean  Cornell University 
Bedwell, Wendy  University of South Florida 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: June 2014 report--Added collaborator: Mathias Basner.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX13AM78G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2012 Crew Health NNJ12ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX13AM78G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team Gap 01:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and life cycle of the team for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(2) Team Gap 02:We need to identify a set of validated measures, based on the key indicators of team function, to effectively monitor and measure team health and performance fluctuations during autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Extended to 7/31/2017 per NSSC information (Ed., 5/5/16)

Task Description: HI-SEAS (Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation) is a habitat on an isolated Mars-like site on the Mauna Loa side of the saddle area on the Big Island of Hawaii at approximately 8200 feet above sea level. HI-SEAS is unique, in addition to its setting in a distinctive analog environment, as: - we select the crew to meet our research needs (in serendipitous analogs, such as Antarctic stations, crew selection criteria are not controlled by researchers); - the conditions (habitat, mission, communications, etc.) are explicitly designed to be similar to those of a planetary exploration mission; - the site is accessible year round, allowing longer duration isolated and confined environment studies than at other locations; - the Mars-like environment offers the potential for analog tasks, such as geological field work by human explorers and/or robots. The ability to select crew members to meet research needs and isolate them in a managed simulation performing under specific mission profiles makes HI-SEAS ideal for detailed studies in space-flight crew dynamics, behaviors, roles, and performance, especially for long-duration missions. To take advantage of this capability, the research in this proposal addresses the IRP Gap Team1: “We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and life cycle of the team for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions.” In particular, we will conduct a ground-based investigation to measure and track the factors expected to have significant impacts on team function and performance, and assess that impact, over three high-autonomy missions of differing durations (four, eight, and twelve months). During crew selection for each mission we will measure participants’ cognitive capacities, communication skills, preferred communication strategies, interpersonal strategies, coping strategies, mission and crew role specific knowledge, and planning and collaborative problem solving ability. During the missions we will monitor crew communication, communication strategies, crew coping strategies, crew work load and job sharing, and conflict resolution and conflict management, as well as taking several measures of crew performance. Finally, we will examine how each of the factors affects crew performance during the missions. Our goals are: 1. To measure key factors that may contribute to crew function and performance over three high-autonomy missions of varying length. 2. To assess the impact of these factors on crew function and performance. 3. To assess the relative impact of these factors for different duration missions. 4. To suggest potential countermeasures (e.g., crew selection strategies) and interventions (e.g., responses to deteriorating crew cohesion) to maximize crew function and performance.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The ability to track team cohesion, process, and performance could benefit other teams in long-duration isolated and confined environments (e.g., military deployments, Antarctic winter-over crews).

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2015 
Task Progress: At the time of submission of this report (06/2015) we are near the end of the second of three HI-SEAS missions supported by this grant. Here we report progress on various aspects of the project.

Habitat upgrades: The HI-SEAS habitat was upgraded (at no additional cost to the grant) before the first mission to include a robust array of solar panels, an H2 fuel cell, an additional 500 gallons of water storage capacity (for a total of 1000 gallons), and high-capacity composting toilets. These measures have reduced the frequency of site servicing from 1-2 times per week to two times per month, which in turn helps maintain the isolation of the crew while reducing costs. Between the first and second missions, the communications and telemetry systems were upgraded (again, at no additional cost to the grant), resulting in far fewer failures. Thanks to this increased stability, we have actually had to introduce simulated failures in order to observe the crew’s performance under sub-optimal conditions.

Crew selection: In late 2013, we began recruiting crew members for all three missions. About 150 applications were received. Of these, about 120 met the basic requirements for participation. Based on education, professional background, and experience, these were down-selected to thirty interviewees for the first mission. This set also served as the pool for the eight- and twelve-month missions. Interviewees were asked to complete psychological screening tests. Based on the interviews (conducted remotely) and screening, nine applicants (crew and reserves) were selected for the second mission.

Eight (one had to withdraw for personal reasons) went on an eight-day National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) course in summer 2014. This was an excellent addition to the selection process, as it allowed potential participants to evaluate each other and themselves in an isolated setting. We received feedback from the applicants and from the NOLS instructors. Based on all the material collected, six crewmembers were selected in July 2014 for the eight-month mission starting in October 2014 (currently nearing its end), and the remaining two became reserves.

We are currently in the process of selecting the crew for the final twelve-month mission, starting in August 2015.

Mission support: Mission support is divided into two tiers. First tier support (FTS) members work in four-hour shifts 8am-8pm HST. FTS responds as quickly as possible (given the 20 minute latency in communications) to requests from the crew, acknowledges crew reports, and provides the crew with information (e.g., news reports, weather forecasts, requested data). FTS is also able to approve some activities, such as EVAs in the vicinity of the habitat, and escalate all other requests for approval to second tier support (STS). STS is ‘on call’ 24hrs/day, seven days per week. STS approval is required for site servicing, longer EVAs, and any activities not clearly defined by the mission rules. All mission support communications, except for emergency operations, are via a project-management system, and are subject to the 20-minute delay.

Mission A: In March 2014, the first crew flew to Hawaii for a week of baseline measurements, as well as training on habitat systems, geological fieldwork, and study protocols. On March 27, the crew entered the habitat, and came out four months later.

During the mission, the crew collected data on: - Cognitive function, - Team processes, - Team cohesion, - Intra-crew relationships, - Team member interactions, - Team performance.

The crew carried out several opportunistic research projects. These are not part of the research funded by this grant, but do support NASA’s goals by raising the readiness level of technologies, protocols, and countermeasures. The opportunistic research projects on that mission include: - Evaluating anti-microbial fabrics, - Growing plants using light of varying wavelength, - Evaluating 3-D printed surgical tools, - Tracking stress and exertion on extra-vehicular activities.

Mission B: The second mission is about to finish its eight month duration on June 13, 2015. They have collected the same core set of data as for Mission A, although the set of opportunistic research projects has evolved.

Timeline: We have begun the selection process for the next mission, which will start in August 2015 and last twelve months.

Education and public outreach: The crew and mission support have been very active in education and public outreach efforts. Regular updates are posted on the http://www.hi-seas.org site, Facebook, and Twitter. Also, crewmembers regularly post blogs and YouTube videos chronicling their mission. They respond directly to questions from students on a regular basis.

The mission has also received a great deal of national and international media attention. Links to many of the articles written about HI-SEAS and other media are available on the website ( http://www.hi-seas.org ) or on the project’s Facebook page.

Results: As we are just coming to the end of the second mission of three, and our plan is to compare data across the three missions, we do not yet have final results to report. However, the data is coming in as expected, and crew compliance with study protocols is very high (near 100%).

We are measuring crew performance in several ways: compliance with study protocols and mission rules; daily tasks (e.g., habitat maintenance, reports); opportunistic research; and geology field research. Of these, the geology is the most team-oriented (most tasks require at least three crewmembers and a series of well-planned EVAs) and progressive (in that they build on each other over the course of the mission). Only three crewmembers to date has even minimal education in geology beyond the three-day cram course that was part of the pre-mission training. Nonetheless, the crew performance on the geology tasks has been impressive.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 07/06/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Shiro B. "Geological Field Activities at the HI-SEAS Planetary Surface Analog Mission Simulation in Hawai‘i." NASA Exploration Science Forum, Moffett Field, CA, July 21-23, 2014.

NASA Exploration Science Forum, Moffett Field, CA, July 21-23, 2014. http://nesf2014.arc.nasa.gov/content/shiro-brian-geological-field-activities-hi-seas-planetary-surface-analog-mission-simulation ; accessed 6/4/15. , Jul-2014

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Santoro JM, Binsted K. "Long-term team dynamics: The Hawai’i space exploration analog and simulation." In S.W.J. Kozlowski and C-H. Chang (Co-chairs), Team dynamics: Capturing process phenomena in extreme teams Symposium. Presented at the 30th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Philadelphia, PA, April 23-25, 2015.

30th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Philadelphia, PA, April 23-25, 2015. , Apr-2015

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Kozlowski SWJ, Chang C-H, Baard SK, Pearce M, Dixon AJ, Santoro JM. "Capturing team process dynamics." In W.B. Vessey (Chair), Teams on ICE: Team research in spaceflight analogs Symposium. Presented at the 30th Annual Conference for the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, April 23-25, 2015.

30th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Philadelphia, PA, April 23-25, 2015. , Apr-2015

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Santoro JM, Dixon AJ, Chang C-H, Kozlowski,SWJ. "A multi-site investigation into team dynamics in isolated and confined extreme environments." Poster session presented at the 2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 13-15, 2015.

2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 13-15, 2015. , Jan-2015

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Hunter J, Binsted K, Drago RE. "Nutritional intake of analog subjects consuming prepackaged or crew-prepared foods." 2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 13-15, 2015.

2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 13-15, 2015. , Jan-2015

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Binsted K, Bedwell W, Caldwell B, Hunter J, Kozlowski S, Miller C, Roma P. "Preliminary results on team function and performance from Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS)." 2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 13-15, 2015.

2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 13-15, 2015. , Jan-2015

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Poulet L, Massa G, Wheeler R, Gill T, Steele C, Morrow RC, Swarmer T, Hunter J, Binsted K. "Demonstration Test of Electrical Lighting Systems for Plant Growth in HI-SEAS Analog Mars Habitat." IAC 65: 65th International Astronautical Congress, Toronto, Canada, September 29-October 3, 2014.

IAC 65: 65th International Astronautical Congress, Toronto, Canada, September 29-October 3, 2014. Paper code IAC-14,A5,2,9,x25271 , Oct-2014

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Binsted K, Bedwell W, Caldwell B, Hunter J, Kozlowski S, Miller C, Roma P. "Determining key contributors to the maintenance and regulation of team function and performance on long duration exploration missions at the HI-SEAS analog habitat." IAC 65: 65th International Astronautical Congress, Toronto, Canada, September 29-October 3, 2014.

IAC 65: 65th International Astronautical Congress, Toronto, Canada, September 29-October 3, 2014. IAC-14,A1,P,27,x27063. , Oct-2014

Significant Media Coverage Kizzia T. "Moving to Mars." New Yorker article about Dr. Binsted's HI-SEAS project in print and online, April 20, 2015. ( http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/04/20/moving-to-mars ; accessed 6/4/15)., Apr-2015
Significant Media Coverage Chang K. "In A Dome In Hawaii, A Mission To Mars." New York Times about Dr. Binsted's HI-SEAS project in print and online, October 20, 2014 ( http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/21/science/taking-minds-on-a-journey-to-mars.html ; accessed 6/4/15). , Oct-2014
Project Title:  Key Contributors to the Maintenance and Regulation of Team Function and Performance on Long Duration Exploration Missions Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2014 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/01/2013  
End Date: 07/31/2016  
Task Last Updated: 06/08/2014 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Binsted, Kim  Ph.D. / University of Hawaii 
Address:  Hawaii Hall 202, 2500 Campus Rd 
 
Honolulu , HI 96822-2217 
Email: binsted@hawaii.edu 
Phone: 808-398-1300  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Hawaii 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Hunter, Jean  Cornell University 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: June 2014 report--Added collaborator: Mathias Basner.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX13AM78G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2012 Crew Health NNJ12ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX13AM78G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team Gap 01:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and life cycle of the team for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(2) Team Gap 02:We need to identify a set of validated measures, based on the key indicators of team function, to effectively monitor and measure team health and performance fluctuations during autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Task Description: HI-SEAS (Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation) is a habitat on an isolated Mars-like site on the Mauna Loa side of the saddle area on the Big Island of Hawaii at approximately 8200 feet above sea level. HI-SEAS is unique, in addition to its setting in a distinctive analog environment, as: - we select the crew to meet our research needs (in serendipitous analogs, such as Antarctic stations, crew selection criteria are not controlled by researchers); - the conditions (habitat, mission, communications, etc.) are explicitly designed to be similar to those of a planetary exploration mission; - the site is accessible year round, allowing longer duration isolated and confined environment studies than at other locations; - the Mars-like environment offers the potential for analog tasks, such as geological field work by human explorers and/or robots. The ability to select crew members to meet research needs and isolate them in a managed simulation performing under specific mission profiles makes HI-SEAS ideal for detailed studies in space-flight crew dynamics, behaviors, roles, and performance, especially for long-duration missions. To take advantage of this capability, the research in this proposal addresses the IRP Gap Team1: “We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and life cycle of the team for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions.” In particular, we will conduct a ground-based investigation to measure and track the factors expected to have significant impacts on team function and performance, and assess that impact, over three high-autonomy missions of differing durations (four, eight, and twelve months). During crew selection for each mission we will measure participants’ cognitive capacities, communication skills, preferred communication strategies, interpersonal strategies, coping strategies, mission and crew role specific knowledge, and planning and collaborative problem solving ability. During the missions we will monitor crew communication, communication strategies, crew coping strategies, crew work load and job sharing, and conflict resolution and conflict management, as well as taking several measures of crew performance. Finally, we will examine how each of the factors affects crew performance during the missions. Our goals are: 1. To measure key factors that may contribute to crew function and performance over three high-autonomy missions of varying length. 2. To assess the impact of these factors on crew function and performance. 3. To assess the relative impact of these factors for different duration missions. 4. To suggest potential countermeasures (e.g. crew selection strategies) and interventions (e.g. responses to deteriorating crew cohesion) to maximize crew function and performance.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The ability to track team cohesion, process, and performance could benefit other teams in long-duration isolated and confined environments (e.g. military deployments, Antarctic winter-over crews).

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2014 
Task Progress: At the time of submission of this report (06/2014) we are halfway through the first of three HI-SEAS missions supported by this grant. Here we report progress on various aspects of the project.

Habitat upgrades: The HI-SEAS habitat was upgraded (at no additional cost to the grant) to include a robust array of solar panels and an H2 fuel cell. Although there is also a small backup gasoline generator, it was only used in the first few weeks of the mission, before the fuel cell came online (and even then rarely). We have also added another 500 gallons of water-holding capacity, and replaced the regular toilets with high-capacity composting toilets. These measures have reduced the frequency of site servicing from 1-2 times per week to two times per month, which in turn helps maintain the isolation of the crew.

Crew selection: In late 2013, we began recruiting crew members for the three upcoming missions. Approximately 150 applications were received. Of these, about 120 met the basic requirements for participation. Based on education, professional background, and experience, these were down-selected to about thirty interviewees for the first mission. Interviewees were asked to complete psychological screening tests. Based on the interviews (conducted remotely) and screening, nine applicants were selected. These nine were asked for Class 2 flight medicals, and were also asked to conduct pairwise mutual interviews, and provide feedback on their potential crew members. Based on all the material collected, six crewmembers were selected in December 2013, and the remaining three became reserves.

Mission support: Mission support is divided into two tiers. First tier support (FTS) members work in four-hour shifts 8am-8pm HST. FTS responds as quickly as possible (given the 20 minute latency in communications) to requests from the crew, acknowledges crew reports, and provides the crew with information (e.g. news reports, weather forecasts, requested data). FTS is also able to approve some activities, such as EVAs in the vicinity of the habitat, and escalate all other requests for approval to second tier support (STS). STS is ‘on call’ 24hrs/day, seven days per week. STS approval is required for site servicing, longer EVAs, and any activities not clearly defined by the mission rules. All mission support communications, except for emergency operations, are via a project-management system, and are subject to the 20-minute delay.

Mission A:

In March 2014, the first crew flew to Hawaii for a week of baseline measurements, as well as training on habitat systems, geological fieldwork, and study protocols. On March 27, the crew entered the habitat for the four-month-long mission. During the mission, the crew are collecting data on: - Cognitive function, - Team processes, - Team cohesion, - Intra-crew relationships, - Team member interactions, - Team performance.

The crew are also carrying out several opportunistic research projects. These are not part of the research funded by this grant, but do support NASA’s goals by raising the readiness level of technologies and protocols. The opportunistic research projects on this mission include: - Evaluating anti-microbial fabrics, - Growing plants using light of varying wavelength, - Evaluating 3-D printed surgical tools, - Tracking stress and exertion on extra-vehicular activities.

We have also begun the selection process for the next mission, which will start in October 2014 and last eight months.

Education and public outreach:

The crew and mission support have been very active in education and public outreach efforts. Regular updates are posted on the http://www.hi-seas.org site, Facebook, and Twitter. Also, crewmembers regularly post blogs and YouTube videos chronicling their mission. They respond directly to questions from students on a regular basis. The mission has also received a great deal of national and international media attention.

Results:

Because this is the first year of the grant, and we are still carrying out the first mission, we do not yet have even preliminary results to report. However, the data is coming in as expected, and crew compliance with study protocols is high.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 07/06/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2014
Project Title:  Key Contributors to the Maintenance and Regulation of Team Function and Performance on Long Duration Exploration Missions Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2013 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 08/01/2013  
End Date: 07/31/2016  
Task Last Updated: 09/11/2013 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Binsted, Kim  Ph.D. / University of Hawaii 
Address:  Hawaii Hall 202, 2500 Campus Rd 
 
Honolulu , HI 96822-2217 
Email: binsted@hawaii.edu 
Phone: 808-398-1300  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: University of Hawaii 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Doumas, Alex  University of Hawaii 
Hunter, Jean  Cornell University 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX13AM78G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2012 Crew Health NNJ12ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX13AM78G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team Gap 01:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and life cycle of the team for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(2) Team Gap 02:We need to identify a set of validated measures, based on the key indicators of team function, to effectively monitor and measure team health and performance fluctuations during autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Task Description: HI-SEAS (Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation) is a habitat on an isolated Mars-like site on the Mauna Loa side of the saddle area on the Big Island of Hawaii at approximately 8200 feet above sea level. HI-SEAS is unique, in addition to its setting in a distinctive analog environment, as: - we select the crew to meet our research needs (in serendipitous analogs, such as Antarctic stations, crew selection criteria are not controlled by researchers); - the conditions (habitat, mission, communications, etc.) are explicitly designed to be similar to those of a planetary exploration mission; - the site is accessible year round, allowing longer duration isolated and confined environment studies than at other locations; - the Mars-like environment offers the potential for analog tasks, such as geological field work by human explorers and/or robots. The ability to select crew members to meet research needs and isolate them in a managed simulation performing under specific mission profiles makes HI-SEAS ideal for detailed studies in space-flight crew dynamics, behaviors, roles and performance, especially for long-duration missions. To take advantage of this capability, the research in this proposal addresses the Integrated Research Plan (IRP) Gap Team1: “We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and life cycle of the team for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions.” In particular, we will conduct a ground-based investigation to measure and track the factors expected to have significant impacts on team function and performance, and assess that impact, over three high-autonomy missions of differing durations (four, eight, and twelve months). During crew selection for each mission we will measure participants’ cognitive capacities, communication skills, preferred communication strategies, interpersonal strategies, coping strategies, mission and crew role specific knowledge, and planning and collaborative problem solving ability. During the missions we will monitor crew communication, communication strategies, crew coping strategies, crew work load and job sharing, and conflict resolution and conflict management, as well as taking several measures of crew performance. Finally, we will examine how each of the factors affects crew performance during the missions. Our goals are: 1. To measure key factors that may contribute to crew function and performance over three high-autonomy missions of varying length. 2. To assess the impact of these factors on crew function and performance. 3. To assess the relative impact of these factors for different duration missions. 4. To suggest potential countermeasures (e.g. crew selection strategies) and interventions (e.g. responses to deteriorating crew cohesion) to maximize crew function and performance.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2013 
Task Progress: New project for FY2013.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 07/06/2021)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2013