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Project Title:  Real-Time Estimation of the Effects of a Simulated Long-Duration Exploration Mission on Flight Performance, Workload, and Situation Awareness Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2017 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H) 
Start Date: 07/19/2016  
End Date: 01/18/2020  
Task Last Updated: 12/01/2017 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Duda, Kevin R Ph.D. / The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. 
Address:  555 Technology Sq 
MS 27 
Cambridge , MA 02139-3539 
Email: kduda@draper.com 
Phone: 617-258-4385  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: NON-PROFIT 
Organization Name: The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Stankovic, Aleksandra  Ph.D. Charles Stark Draper Laboratory 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: April 2017: Original CoInvestigator D. Handley left Draper Laboratory for a position with another company and no longer has a role with the project.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX16AO29G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation: 2015-16 HERO NNJ15ZSA001N-ILSRA. Appendix F: International Life Sciences Research Announcement 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX16AO29G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
 (2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed02:We need to identify and validate measures to monitor behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions to determine acceptable thresholds for these measures (IRP Rev F)
 (2) Sleep Gap 02:We need to understand the contribution of sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, extended wakefulness and work overload, on individual and team behavioral health and performance (including operational performance), for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Extended to 1/18/2020; in addition, start date should be 7/19/2016, all per K. Ohnesorge/JSC HRP (Ed., 5/24/18)

NOTE: Change in period of performance to 7/01/2016-12/31/2018 (previously 7/22/16-10/21/18 and then 7/19/2016-10/18/2018), per NSSC information (Ed., 12/15/17)

NOTE: Change in period of performance to 7/19/2016-10/18/2018 (previously 7/22/16-10/21/18), per K. Ohnesorge and D. Risin/JSC (Ed., 3/29/17)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/18/17)

Task Description: Human spaceflight often requires long-term isolation of crewmembers in extreme environments. These environments introduce stressors to both crewmember physiology and psychology. Specific human-factors stressors include long-duration isolation, sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, and high workload. These stressors present a real risk of performance decrement during a spaceflight mission. Research done in spaceflight analogs such as the NASA Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) provide a unique opportunity to study these effects and develop essential metrics to identify and prevent performance decrements in an operationally-relevant setting.

In the field of human spaceflight, real-time performance metrics, and quantification of performance during operationally-relevant tasks and scenarios has the potential for making existing operations safer and more efficient, as well as for improving the design of future vehicles. The identification of critical performance decrements, either in measures of task performance, workload, or situational awareness, may be used to alter the human-automation task allocation or suggest changes to crew resource management. These metrics have been previously developed for the following operationally relevant tasks:

• Piloted lunar landing using a generic lunar lander design.

• Manual control of SAFER (simplified aid for EVA rescue) during an inspection of a solar panel by an EVA (extravehicular activity) crewmember.

• Manual control of SAFER during a simulated self-rescue flight back to the International Space Station (ISS).

• Manual control of the MPCV/Orion vehicle during docking with the ISS.

Future missions may be operating with delayed communication, or in extreme cases, without communication to Earth for ground-based support. In addition, all of the environmental parameters likely will not be known in advance (e.g., asteroid spin rate). A simulation capability that can be used to assess operational performance can be used to inform temporal function allocation (e.g., performance benefit/cost of human performing all the tasks vs. auto to start and then allow human to takeover at the end). This can help to inform mission design and crew resource management as a function of mission duration, sleep state, circadian synchronization, and workload. Real-time performance metrics are a valuable tool for quickly identifying performance decrements, and for determining the performance impact of delayed or sparse communication.

We have integrated the Draper-developed configurable and portable simulation platform for use during HERA missions. This platform can simulate multiple operationally-relevant scenarios—a generic piloted lunar landing task, ISS EVA SAFER inspection of a solar array, ISS EVA self-rescue, and MPCV/Orion docking with the ISS. This simulation platform will be used to characterize real-time performance metrics including flight performance, workload, and situation awareness during piloted lunar landing and ISS EVA SAFER solar array inspection tasks in HERA during Campaign 4, and the results will be correlated with mission timeline events and NASA Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Standard Measures.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The integration of flight performance, workload, and situation awareness metrics in a real-time estimation algorithm and combining those metrics with several operationally relevant spaceflight piloting scenarios is impactful for spaceflight operations and has many Earth-based benefits. A truly novel aspect of this project is real-time situation awareness estimation, which does not require simulation freezes/pauses or post-simulation questionnaires. This method could be applied to any land, sea, or space-based systems where there is a need to continually assess operator performance, workload, and situation awareness over time, and use those metrics to alert them to deviations. As an example, these metrics were integrated with a flight simulation environment under a study for the Air Force Research Laboratory. We are also working closely with the NASA Behavioral Health and Performance community to ensure that these metrics are relevant to the cohort of Standard Measures that are part of their ongoing and planned future studies.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2017 
Task Progress: Human spaceflight often requires long-term isolation of crewmembers in extreme environments. These environments introduce stressors to both crewmember physiology and psychology. Specific human-factors stressors include long-duration isolation, sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, and high workload. These stressors present a real risk of performance decrement during a spaceflight mission. Research done in spaceflight analogs such as the NASA Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) provide a unique opportunity to study these effects and develop essential metrics to identify and prevent performance decrements in an operationally-relevant setting.

In the field of human spaceflight, real-time performance metrics, and quantification of performance during operationally-relevant tasks and scenarios has the potential for making existing operations safer and more efficient, as well as for improving the design of future vehicles. The identification of critical performance decrements, either in measures of task performance, workload, or situational awareness, may be used to alter the human-automation task allocation or suggest changes to crew resource management.

We have integrated the Draper-developed configurable and portable simulation platform with the HERA module in support of the upcoming Campaign 4 Missions. This required close coordination with the HERA team and the Flight Analogs team to ensure that the facility could accommodate our hardware in the locations and arrangement that best support the science objectives of our project. Our team delivered an updated set of software to the HERA hardware to enable the crew to operate the simulations and progress through the trials and automatically log and save the data for subsequent download and analysis. This enables individual configurations for each HERA crewmember – Commander, Flight Engineer, Mission Specialist 1, and Mission Specialist 2.

In parallel with the software development to support crew autonomous operations of the Draper real-time metrics simulation platform, our team developed a detailed operations manual for the HERA/Flight Analogs team, a crew-operations manual that is focused on the specific procedures for running the study, and a crew training curriculum for training the crew and preparing for baseline data collection. Additionally, to facilitate data analysis and quick-look reports of the data, our team is developing an automated analysis pipeline to analyze the data for the initial key parameters of flight performance (e.g., root mean square error of attitude), workload (e.g., secondary task response times), and situation awareness (e.g., scoring of the verbal callouts as recognized by the automatic speech recognition algorithm).

This platform has been specifically tailored to simulate two operationally-relevant scenarios—a generic piloted lunar landing task and an ISS EVA SAFER inspection of a solar array. This simulation platform will be used to characterize real-time performance metrics including flight performance, workload, and situation awareness during piloted lunar landing and ISS EVA SAFER solar array inspection tasks in HERA during Campaign 4, and the results will be correlated with mission timeline events and NASA Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Standard Measures.

Our near-term work will entail supporting the training, baseline data collection, and operations of HERA Campaign 4 Mission 1. Subsequently, we will then analyze the data and prepare for Missions 2, 3, and 4.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 04/05/2019)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Duda KR, Stankovic AS, York SP, Handley PM, West JJ, Robinson SK. "Real-Time Estimation of the Effects of a Simulated Long-Duration Exploration Mission on Flight Performance, Workload, and Situation Awareness." Abstract and Poster at the 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX. January 23-26, 2017.

2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX. January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Project Title:  Real-Time Estimation of the Effects of a Simulated Long-Duration Exploration Mission on Flight Performance, Workload, and Situation Awareness Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2016 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H) 
Start Date: 07/19/2016  
End Date: 10/18/2018  
Task Last Updated: 10/19/2016 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Duda, Kevin R Ph.D. / The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. 
Address:  555 Technology Sq 
MS 27 
Cambridge , MA 02139-3539 
Email: kduda@draper.com 
Phone: 617-258-4385  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: NON-PROFIT 
Organization Name: The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Handley, Patrick  M.S. Charles Stark Draper Laboratory 
Stankovic, Aleksandra  Ph.D. Charles Stark Draper Laboratory 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX16AO29G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor:  
Center Contact:   
Solicitation: 2015-16 HERO NNJ15ZSA001N-ILSRA. Appendix F: International Life Sciences Research Announcement 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX16AO29G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
 (2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed02:We need to identify and validate measures to monitor behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions to determine acceptable thresholds for these measures (IRP Rev F)
 (2) Sleep Gap 02:We need to understand the contribution of sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, extended wakefulness and work overload, on individual and team behavioral health and performance (including operational performance), for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: Change in period of performance to 7/19/2016-10/18/2018 (previously 7/22/16-10/21/18), per K. Ohnesorge and D. Risin/JSC (Ed., 3/29/17)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/18/17)

Task Description: Human spaceflight often requires long-term isolation of crewmembers in extreme environments. These environments introduce stressors to both crewmember physiology and psychology. Specific human-factors stressors include long-duration isolation, sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, and high workload. These stressors present a real risk of performance decrement during a spaceflight mission. Research done on spaceflight analogs such as Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) provide a unique opportunity to study these effects and develop essential metrics to identify and prevent performance decrements in an operationally-relevant setting.

In the field of human spaceflight, real-time performance metrics, and quantification of performance during operationally-relevant tasks and scenarios has the potential for making existing operations safer and more efficient, as well as for improving the design of future vehicles. The identification of critical performance decrements, either in measures of task performance, workload, or situational awareness, may be used to alter the human-automation task allocation or suggest changes to crew resource management. These metrics have been previously developed for the following operationally relevant tasks:

• Piloted lunar landing using a generic lunar lander design.

• Manual control of SAFER during an inspection of a solar panel by an EVA (extravehicular activity) crewmember.

• Multi-purpose crew vehicle (MPCV)/Orion docking operations with the International Space Station (ISS).

Future missions may be operating with delayed communication, or in extreme cases, without communication to Earth for ground-based support. In addition, all of the environmental parameters likely will not be known in advance (e.g., asteroid spin rate). A simulation capability that can be used to assess operational performance can be used to inform temporal function allocation (e.g., performance benefit/cost of human performing all the tasks vs. auto to start and then allow human to takeover at the end). This can help to inform mission design and crew resource management as a function of mission duration, sleep state, circadian synchronization, and workload. Real-time performance metrics are a valuable tool for quickly identifying performance decrements, and for determining the performance impact of delayed or sparse communication.

We propose to integrate an existing configurable and portable simulation platform for use during HERA missions. This platform can simulate multiple operationally-relevant scenarios—a generic lunar landing task, EVA SAFER inspection of a solar array, and MPCV/Orion docking with the ISS. This simulation platform is will be used to characterize real-time performance metrics including flight performance, workload, and situation awareness as a function of time in HERA.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2016 
Task Progress: New project for FY2016.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 04/05/2019)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2016