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Project Title:  SCALE: Shared Cognitive Architectures for Long-term Exploration--GA Tech Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2017 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 07/01/2015  
End Date: 10/05/2016  
Task Last Updated: 05/09/2017 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   DeChurch, Leslie  Ph.D. / Northwestern University 
Address:  Northwestern University 
School of Communication 
Evanston , IL 60208 
Email: dechurch@northwestern.edu 
Phone: 954-646-5083  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Northwestern University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: Previously at Georgia Institute of Technology until July 2016. 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Contractor, Noshir  Ph.D. Northwestern University 
Johnson, Jeffrey  Ph.D. University of Florida, Gainesville 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: July 2016: none
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX15AM26G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2014-15 HERO NNJ14ZSA001N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX15AM26G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team Gap 01:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and life cycle of the team for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(2) Team Gap 05:We need to identify validated ground-based training methods that can be both preparatory and continuing to maintain team function in autonomous, long duration, and/or distance exploration mission (IRP Rev E)
(3) Team Gap 08:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof that can be used to compose highly effective crews for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 10/5/2016 (original due date was 6/30/2018) due to PI move to Northwestern University and new award granted (Ed., 2/12/18)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/17/17)

Task Description: Among the remarkable team challenges NASA faces in long distance space exploration (LDSE) missions is the need to maintain team shared mental models (SMMs). Maintaining team SMMs requires the ability to detect shifts in cognition that will likely occur during the mission that could lead to ineffective crew functioning and performance. Maintaining team SMMs also requires validated countermeasures for bringing team members' cognitive understanding back into alignment. Leaving low Earth orbit is extreme teamwork -- team SMMs need to be maintained within teams operating close up (the crew), and between teams operating at an unprecedented distance (i.e., the crew & ground; 33 million miles in the case of a Mars Mission). A multidisciplinary research team will leverage expertise in Psychology, Industrial Engineering, & Anthropology to understand the emergence and outcomes of critical shifts in team cognition over LDSE missions. What are the triggering events of SMM divergence, how can we detect them, and which countermeasures most effectively bring them back into alignment? This project leverages a novel conceptual framework of shared cognitive architecture (SCA) to understand the patterns of SMMs that dynamically link members of teams, and teams to other teams, as they go beyond low Earth orbit. We use semantic analysis to identify cognitive shifts, and relational event network analysis to understand the antecedents and consequences of these shifts. We use these alongside an agent-based model fit on LDSE analogue data, so that we can explore an exhaustive set of potential triggering conditions that must be unpacked to conduct efficient ground analogue research. We then conduct this research in HERA (Human Exploration Research Analog), Moonwalk, and Antarctica. The project culminates in the evaluation of a dashboard fed with the results of computational modeling, human validation, and lexical markers to detect and suggest countermeasures to maintain SMMs through time and space.

NOTE: Project continues as "SCALE: Shared Cognitive Architectures for Long-term Exploration--80NSSC18K0221," due to Principal Investigator move to Northwestern University in Fall 2016.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Many of the environmental conditions faced by crews during LDSE missions are not unique to space travel. With our research program, we hope to reveal how conditions seen in organizations across the world impact shared cognitive architecture, and what we can do to mitigate these risks. Our meta-analysis has begun to investigate the impact of shared cognitive architecture on team outcomes across a variety of environmental conditions seen in LDSE missions that can also be applied to work in all organizations.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2017 
Task Progress: Among the significant team challenges NASA will face during long distance space exploration is the need to maintain shared cognition within the space crew and among the system of teams that support the crew from Earth (i.e., the space exploration multiteam system). Shared cognition is defined as team members’ shared understanding of knowledge regarding the team’s environment, tasks, expertise, roles, and responsibilities. Shared cognition needs to be maintained within teams who operate at a short distance (i.e., the crew), and also between teams who operate at a great distance (i.e., the crew and ground). Research suggests the extent to which cognition is shared within the team and the broader multiteam system has implications for team process, performance, affect, and viability over time. Over the course of this three-year programmatic research program, we have three major foci of activity: (1) to develop and test ways to measure shared cognition in teams and multiteam systems, (2) to explore the antecedents, consequences, and moderating conditions associated with shared cognition, and (3) to model shared cognition in teams and within multiteam systems so as to inform interventions. In Year 2, we’ve made significant strides in each of these areas with six major projects that speak to one or more of the above foci.

In Study 1, we use meta-analysis to explore the conditions under which shared cognition is most important to crew performance. We explore three types of moderating variables, including team type (e.g., team diversity, autonomy, and lifespan), team context (e.g., virtuality, temporal and geographic dispersion, and organizational embeddedness), and team conditions (e.g., physical and psychological stressors). Results help us determine (1) the extent to which prior teams research is relevant to long distance space exploration, (2) factors which need to be modeled effectively in order to predict, diagnose, and prevent breakdowns in shared cognition, and (3) which antecedent and moderating conditions are most relevant to cognitive sharedness in long distance space exploration.

In Study 2, we developed an approach to using text analytics as an unobtrusive means of measuring shared cognition using the archived mission transcripts from the Skylab missions. We identified the text-based signatures of cognitive breakdown that ultimately led to conflict in Skylab 4. We also explored the dynamic conversational patterns in each mission that were indicative of cognitive sharedness or its breakdown. This study informs our broader goal of developing efficient and unobtrusive measures of shared cognition in multiteam systems.

In Study 3, we developed an agent based model (ABM) using empirical data collected from the HERA analog. We developed the ABM in two phases. First, we canvassed the relevant literature on shared cognition to identify its antecedent conditions. Second, we collected laboratory and analog data to estimate and then test the parameters of the agent based model. In particular, we explored personality factors, social relations, situational factors, and task stream characteristics that associate with cognitive sharedness. The ABM will be used in Year 3 to run “virtual experiments” wherein we can pose “what if” questions that will directly inform the development of interventions aimed at promoting shared cognition, ultimately informing our major goal associated with modeling shared cognition in teams and multiteam systems.

Studies 4-6 speak directly to our major goal of identifying antecedents conditions of cognitive sharedness. In Study 4, we collected data in the HERA analog using daily planning surveys and the Project RED task battery to explore the role of social connectedness, communication delay, and sleep deprivation on shared cognition. In Study 5, we conducted archival research on thirty documented Antarctic exploration missions to explore how social roles, leadership isomorphism, and group dynamics affected cognitive sharedness and ultimately team functioning and viability on these missions. Finally, in Study 6, we worked with Diego Urbina from Space Applications, Inc. to collect data in the Moonwalk analogs in Rio Tinto, Spain and Marseilles, France. In these analogs, we explored how information sharedness affects shared cognition.

Our research will provide fundamental, generalizable findings in the area of shared cognition in teams and multiteam systems. Researchers have bemoaned the inefficiencies associated with measuring shared cognition as historically such measurements have been intrusive and time-consuming. In this program of research, we are exploring the use of text analytics, social role network analyses, and surveys as efficient and less intrusive means of assessing cognitive sharedness within the team and broader multiteam system. Second, as teamwork becomes more prevalent across workplaces and occupations and its nature more variable, a broader array of antecedent, moderating, and mediating conditions associated with shared cognition come into play. We are conducting meta-analytic, archival, experimental, and analog studies designed to identify and understand the antecedents and consequences of shared cognition in teams and multiteam systems. Finally, breakdowns in shared cognition must be identified and addressed quickly before team functioning is irrevocably affected. We use data collected in these meta-analytic, archival, experimental, and analog studies to develop an agent based model which will be used in Year 3 to conduct virtual experiments and ultimately create a dashboard for diagnosing and developing interventions for breakdowns in shared cognition.

This research will be useful for investigating shared cognition in any modern-day organization facing complex collaborative challenges, such as NASA space exploration, large scientific consortia (e.g., CERN), cybersecurity teams, healthcare systems, and the military. Furthermore, findings could then be leveraged to develop system-wide interventions that increase overall work efficiency and resilience in safety-critical systems. In this review period, we have collected data across multiple platforms (please see subsequent sections of this report for details) to begin to understand the antecedent, consequent, and moderating conditions associated with shared cognition. In addition to providing Earth Benefits in the area of shared cognition in teams and multiteam systems, we are also testing our hypotheses in analogs that recreate the unique contexts in which astronauts operate (i.e., extreme, isolated/confined environments). We will compare results across research paradigms to see how effects of isolation/confinement may moderate shared cognition’s role in team functioning, thus providing unique findings that will inform NASA’s operations aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and on Long-Duration Space Exploration (LDSE) missions.

NOTE: Project continues as "SCALE: Shared Cognitive Architectures for Long-term Exploration--80NSSC18K0221," due to Principal Investigator move to Northwestern University in Fall 2016. See that project for subsequent reporting.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 04/01/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Twyman M, DeChurch L, Contractor NS. "Using a network approach for modeling shared cognition of astronaut teams." Poster to be presented at NetSci 2017 International School and Conference on Network Science, Indianapolis, IN, June 19-23, 2017.

NetSci 2017 International School and Conference on Network Science, Indianapolis, IN, June 19-23, 2017. , Jun-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Jeon G, DeChurch LA, Contractor NS. "Structural measures of specializations in teams." Presented at the XXXVI International Sunbelt Social Networks Conference, Newport Beach, CA, April 5-10, 2016.

XXXVI International Sunbelt Social Networks Conference, Newport Beach, CA, April 5-10, 2016. Presentations and abstracts, p. 100-101. , Apr-2016

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings DeChurch LA, Schultz M, Johnson J, Contractor NS, Mesmer-Magnus J, Plummer G, Twyman M. "Structured text analysis for evaluating shared cognition." Presented at 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017.

2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings DeChurch LA, Niler A, Plummer G, Tanaka K, Contractor NS. "Impact of social connectedness, communication delay, and sleep deprivation on cognitive network similarity in analog teams." Presented at 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017.

2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings DeChurch LA, Larson L, Gómez-Zará D, Jones BR, Contractor N, Johnson J. "Leadership emergence in space multiteam systems." Team, Training, and Performance Metrics. Presented at 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017.

2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings DeChurch LA, Contractor NS, Niler A, Mesmer-Magnus JR, Plummer G, Gomez-Zara D. "Shared cognition in multiteam systems: A NASA space analog study." Poster presented at the 23rd Organizational Science Winter Conference, Park City, UT, February 2-5, 2017.

23rd Organizational Science Winter Conference, Park City, UT, February 2-5, 2017. , Feb-2017

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings DeChurch LA, Mesmer-Magnus JR, Niler A, Plummer G, Larson L, Contractor NS. "The relative instrumentality of team cognition: A meta-analysis." Poster to be presented at the EAWOP17 European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress, Dublin, Ireland, May 17-20, 2017.

EAWOP17 European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress, Dublin, Ireland, May 17-20, 2017. , May-2017

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Wolak RJ, Johnson JC. "Social dynamics in an isolated, confined, and extreme workplace." Int J Biometeorol. 2021 Mar;65(3):437-51. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-020-02043-3 ; PMID: 33230641 , Mar-2021
Papers from Meeting Proceedings Johnson JC, Zurek M, Contractor NS, DeChurch LA. "Team dynamics in spaceflight analogs: Shared mental models, informal social roles, and team viability and conflict in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA)." Paper presented at the XXXVII Sunbelt Social Networks Conference of the International Network for Social Network Analysis (INSNA), Beijing, China, May 30th – June 4th, 2017.

XXXVII Sunbelt Social Networks Conference of the International Network for Social Network Analysis (INSNA), Beijing, China, May 30th – June 4th, 2017. , May-2017

Papers from Meeting Proceedings DeChurch LA, Larson L, Jones BR, Gómez-Zará D, Contractor N. "Social identification and leadership emergence within and between teams." Paper presented at the 2nd Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Leadership Symposium, Mykonos, Greece, May 4-6, 2017.

2nd Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Leadership Symposium, Mykonos, Greece, May 4-6, 2017. , May-2017

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Tanaka K, Witz C, Niler AA, DeChurch LA, Contractor NS. "Misperceptions of social structure: Omission and commission errors in communication networks." Paper presented at the 2017 Organizational Communication Mini Conference, Athens, OH, October 13-15, 2017.

2017 Organizational Communication Mini Conference, Athens, OH, October 13-15, 2017. , Oct-2017

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Niler A, Gibson ZM, DeChurch LA. "The social forces behind leadership network formation in multiteam systems." Paper presented at the Academy of Management Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, August 1-3, 2017.

Academy of Management Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, August 1-3, 2017. , Aug-2017

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Larson LE, Jones BR, Gibson Z, DeChurch LA. "Language, leadership, and identity construction in multiteam systems." Paper presented at the Academy of Management Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, August 1-3, 2017.

Academy of Management Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, August 1-3, 2017. , Aug-2017

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Gomez-Zara D, Larson LE, Jones BR, DeChurch LA, Contractor NS. "Leadership and followership emergence in NASA space crews." Paper presented at the 2017 WSTNet Web Science Summer School, St. Petersburg, Russia, July 1-8, 2017.

2017 WSTNet Web Science Summer School, St. Petersburg, Russia, July 1-8, 2017. , Jul-2017

Papers from Meeting Proceedings DeChurch LA, Schultz M, Contractor NS. "SCALE: Shared cognitive architecture for long-term exploration." Paper presented at the Buzz Aldrin Space Institute Mars Mission Social Sciences Workshop, Cape Canaveral, FL, May 30, 2017.

Buzz Aldrin Space Institute Mars Mission Social Sciences Workshop, Cape Canaveral, FL, May 30, 2017. , May-2017

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Gibson ZM, Carter DC, DeChurch LA. "Little words and big goals: Semantic indicators of leadership in multiteam systems." Paper presented at the 67th Annual Conference of the International Communication Association, San Diego, CA, May 25-29, 2017.

67th Annual Conference of the International Communication Association, San Diego, CA, May 25-29, 2017. , May-2017

Papers from Meeting Proceedings Twyman M, Dechurch L, Contractor N. "Using a network approach for modeling shared cognition of astronaut teams." Paper presented at the NetSci 2017: International School and Conference on Network Science, Indianapolis, IN, June 21-23, 2017.

NetSci 2017: International School and Conference on Network Science, Indianapolis, IN, June 21-23, 2017. , Jun-2017

Project Title:  SCALE: Shared Cognitive Architectures for Long-term Exploration--GA Tech Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2016 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 07/01/2015  
End Date: 10/05/2016  
Task Last Updated: 07/20/2016 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   DeChurch, Leslie  Ph.D. / Northwestern University 
Address:  Northwestern University 
School of Communication 
Evanston , IL 60208 
Email: dechurch@northwestern.edu 
Phone: 954-646-5083  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Northwestern University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: Previously at Georgia Institute of Technology until July 2016. 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Contractor, Noshir  Ph.D. Northwestern University 
Johnson, Jeffrey  Ph.D. University of Florida, Gainesville 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: July 2016: none
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX15AM26G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2014-15 HERO NNJ14ZSA001N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX15AM26G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team Gap 01:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and life cycle of the team for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(2) Team Gap 05:We need to identify validated ground-based training methods that can be both preparatory and continuing to maintain team function in autonomous, long duration, and/or distance exploration mission (IRP Rev E)
(3) Team Gap 08:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof that can be used to compose highly effective crews for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 10/5/2016 (original due date was 6/30/2018) due to PI move to Northwestern University and new award granted (Ed., 2/12/18)

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/17/17)

Task Description: Among the remarkable team challenges NASA faces in long distance space exploration (LDSE) missions is the need to maintain team shared mental models (SMMs). Maintaining team SMMs requires the ability to detect shifts in cognition that will likely occur during the mission that could lead to ineffective crew functioning and performance. Maintaining team SMMs also requires validated countermeasures for bringing team members' cognitive understanding back into alignment. Leaving low Earth orbit is extreme teamwork - team SMMs need to be maintained within teams operating close up (the crew), and between teams operating at an unprecedented distance (i.e., the crew & ground; 33 million miles in the case of a Mars Mission). A multidisciplinary research team will leverage expertise in Psychology, Industrial Engineering, & Anthropology to understand the emergence and outcomes of critical shifts in team cognition over LDSE missions. What are the triggering events of SMM divergence, how can we detect them, and which countermeasures most effectively bring them back into alignment? This project leverages a novel conceptual framework of shared cognitive architecture (SCA) to understand the patterns of SMMs that dynamically link members of teams, and teams to other teams, as they go beyond low Earth orbit. We use semantic analysis to identify cognitive shifts, and relational event network analysis to understand the antecedents and consequences of these shifts. We use these alongside an agent-based model fit on LDSE analogue data, so that we can explore an exhaustive set of potential triggering conditions that must be unpacked to conduct efficient ground analogue research. We then conduct this research in HERA (Human Exploration Research Analog), Moonwalk, and Antarctica. The project culminates in the evaluation of a dashboard fed with the results of computational modeling, human validation, and lexical markers to detect and suggest countermeasures to maintain SMMs through time and space.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Many of the environmental conditions faced by crews during LDSE missions are not unique to space travel. With our research program, we hope to reveal how conditions seen in organizations across the world impact shared cognitive architecture, and what we can do to mitigate these risks. Our meta-analysis has begun to investigate the impact of shared cognitive architecture on team outcomes across a variety of environmental conditions seen in LDSE missions that can also be applied to work in all organizations.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2016 
Task Progress: Among the significant teamwork challenges NASA will face on a future mission to Mars, or any future mission out of the Earth’s lower orbit, is the need to maintain shared mental models. Shared mental models need to be maintained within teams who operate at a short distance (i.e., the crew), and also between teams who operate at a great distance (i.e., the crew and ground). Our investigation of shared mental models incorporates two features that bolster our contribution. First, we model the role of critical contextual forces, resulting from the crew’s interdependence and embeddedness within a system of teams, that ultimately shapes and constrains the maintenance of shared team mental models over long distance space exploration (LDSE). To reflect this focus of our research, we adopt the term shared cognitive architectures, in lieu of shared mental models. The difference in terms reflects the fact that shared cognition needs to be differentiated in terms of that within teams and that between teams; the patterns of within and between team shared mental models are defined as shared cognitive architecture: Shared cognitive architecture (SCA) characterizes the dynamic patterns of structured knowledge about critical elements of teamwork and taskwork, and how these mental representations are shared both within teams (e.g., the crew), and also between teams (e.g., mission control). The second feature of this research program that bolsters its contribution is the investigation of cognitive shifts. Dynamism is an important and under-researched aspect of team cognition relevant to spaceflight. Extant research measures team cognition as a stable property of a team. Given the complexity of astronaut crews working within multiteam systems, we conceptualize cognition as dynamic, shifting in response to a variety of triggering events. Astronaut mental models will have some elements that will need to shift as s/he engages in memberships in multiple groups, interacts with multiple teams, and encounters changes in tasks and goals. However, despite these dynamics, crew cognitive architectures need to remain in, or return to, synchrony with the other members of the crew.

DATA COLLECTION

A. HERA Campaign Participation and Data Collection: We participated in HERA Campaign 3 Mission 1, in partial fulfillment of our objective to collect team task switching data in an analog environment. To capture the full representative structure of a NASA mission to Mars, the HERA crew served as an isolated/confined crew in an environment similar to one that may travel beyond low-Earth orbit, and eight undergraduate participants at Georgia Tech served as Mission Control teams supporting the HERA crew on their mission. We ran three 2-hour sessions (3-hour sessions for participants at Georgia Tech who received 1 hour of training) in which we collected unobtrusive team task-switching data, as well as performance data on the overall task. We also collected team process data through pop-up surveys administered throughout sessions. Additionally, we implemented a time delay within our own software platform to align with the time delay manipulation implemented in HERA during our second session. We are pleased to report that all data collection efforts across all three 2-hour HERA sessions were successful.

B. Project RED Platform, and Additional Multiteam System Experimental Sessions - Control Sessions: The platform used to collect this data was the computer-based multi-team task platform that we developed at Georgia Tech, called Project Red planet Exploration and Development (Project RED). In Project RED, four teams of 3 members each (i.e., a Multiteam System; MTS) work on solving the complex problem of designing and implementing a well infrastructure on Mars that will support future inhabitants of the planet. We are pleased to report that all data collection efforts across all three 2-hour HERA sessions were successful. We have also designed four additional control experiment sessions (one completed, three to be run by the end of the annual review period) to obtain baseline measures against which we can compare our analog data of crew members in an isolated/confined environment. One manipulation will be the distribution of the MTS. In the distributed condition, 4 participants will serve as the “crew” located in the SONIC lab at Northwestern University, and the remaining 8 “Mission Control” participants will be located in the DELTA lab at Georgia Tech. For the non-distributed MTS condition, all participants will be located at the DELTA lab at Georgia Tech. The second manipulation will be the presence or absence of a time delay in communication.

C. Project RED Relay - Mapping Shared Cognitive Architecture: To understand the knowledge that individuals have about who knows whom, we implemented a knowledge task called “Project RED Relay,” to assess how well people recall information about their group’s network structure, and how well they understand other people’s knowledge of the group’s network. This task provides insight into how accurate or convergent knowledge of networks relates to team performance and outcomes during an LDSE mission where individuals work with a variety of others. Project Red Relay is administered to participants following the Project RED Design task as a network game that people access via laptops. This task asks people to direct messages containing files that need to be sent to a specified target in as few steps as possible by routing the message to other people who may be connected to the intended final target. Participants can only choose a small number of contacts to use to direct messages, and to route the messages efficiently, they must be able to know whom other participants selected as their contacts. During this network game, we collected measures of cognitive awareness and perceived individual, team, and MTS efficacy at routing the messages. Therefore, this knowledge task allows us to measure the accuracy, efficiency, and perceptions of people’s cognitive structures.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 04/01/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings DeChurch LA, Contractor NS, Johnson J, Mesmer-Magnus J, Plummer G, Twyman M, Niler A, Larson, Hernandez I. "SCALE: Shared Cognitive Architecture for Long - Distance Exploration." Poster presented at the 2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016.

2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016. , Feb-2016

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Plummer G, Jeon G, DeChurch LA, Contractor NS. "Harmful effects of team external activity on team cognition." Contractor, N. S. (chair), & Plummer, G. (co-chair), Novel ways to understand and assess teamwork. Symposium conducted at the 31st Annual Conference of the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Anaheim, CA, April 14-16, 2016.

31st Annual Conference of the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Anaheim, CA, April 14-16, 2016. , Apr-2016

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bedwell WL, Bell ST, Contractor NS, Fiore SM, Kozlowski SWJ, Salas E, Tannenbaum SI. "Organizing that’s out of this world!" Larson, L. E., Jones, B.R., & DeChurch, L.A. (co-chairs), Ignite and Panel Discussion. Panel convened at the 31st Annual Conference of the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Anaheim, CA, April 14-16, 2016.

31st Annual Conference of the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Anaheim, CA, April 14-16, 2016. , Apr-2016

Project Title:  SCALE: Shared Cognitive Architectures for Long-term Exploration--GA Tech Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2015 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 07/01/2015  
End Date: 10/05/2016  
Task Last Updated: 08/19/2015 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   DeChurch, Leslie  Ph.D. / Northwestern University 
Address:  Northwestern University 
School of Communication 
Evanston , IL 60208 
Email: dechurch@northwestern.edu 
Phone: 954-646-5083  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Northwestern University 
Joint Agency:  
Comments: NOTE: Previously at Georgia Institute of Technology until July 2016. 
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Contractor, Noshir  Ph.D. Northwestern University 
Johnson, Jeffrey  Ph.D. University of Florida, Gainesville 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NNX15AM26G 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2014-15 HERO NNJ14ZSA001N-Crew Health (FLAGSHIP & NSBRI) 
Grant/Contract No.: NNX15AM26G 
Project Type: GROUND 
Flight Program:  
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Team Gap 01:We need to understand the key threats, indicators, and life cycle of the team for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
(2) Team Gap 05:We need to identify validated ground-based training methods that can be both preparatory and continuing to maintain team function in autonomous, long duration, and/or distance exploration mission (IRP Rev E)
(3) Team Gap 08:We need to identify psychological and psychosocial factors, measures, and combinations thereof that can be used to compose highly effective crews for autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: NOTE: End date changed to 10/5/2016 (original due date was 6/30/2018) due to PI move to Northwestern University and new award granted (Ed., 2/12/18)

Task Description: Among the remarkable team challenges NASA faces in long distance space exploration (LDSE) missions is the need to maintain team shared mental models (SMMs). Maintaining team SMMs requires the ability to detect shifts in cognition that will likely occur during the mission that could lead to ineffective crew functioning and performance. Maintaining team SMMs also requires validated countermeasures for bringing team members' cognitive understanding back into alignment. Leaving low Earth orbit is extreme teamwork - team SMMs need to be maintained within teams operating close up (the crew), and between teams operating at an unprecedented distance (i.e., the crew & ground; 33 million miles in the case of a Mars Mission). A multidisciplinary research team will leverage expertise in Psychology, Industrial Engineering, & Anthropology to understand the emergence and outcomes of critical shifts in team cognition over LDSE missions. What are the triggering events of SMM divergence, how can we detect them, and which countermeasures most effectively bring them back into alignment? This project leverages a novel conceptual framework of shared cognitive architecture (SCA) to understand the patterns of SMMs that dynamically link members of teams, and teams to other teams, as they go beyond low Earth orbit. We use semantic analysis to identify cognitive shifts, and relational event network analysis to understand the antecedents and consequences of these shifts. We use these alongside an agent-based model fit on LDSE analogue data, so that we can explore an exhaustive set of potential triggering conditions that must be unpacked to conduct efficient ground analogue research. We then conduct this research in HERA (Human Exploration Research Analog), Moonwalk, and Antarctica. The project culminates in the evaluation of a dashboard fed with the results of computational modeling, human validation, and lexical markers to detect and suggest countermeasures to maintain SMMs through time and space.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2015 
Task Progress: New project for FY2015.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 04/01/2022) 

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 None in FY 2015