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Project Title:  Dietary Intake Can Predict and Protect Against Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight and Recovery (Pro-K) Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2016 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 07/01/2008  
End Date: 08/31/2016  
Task Last Updated: 04/24/2018 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Smith, Scott M Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division/SK3 
2101 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: scott.m.smith@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7204  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Shackelford, Linda  M.D. NASA Johnson Space Center 
Zwart, Sara  Ph.D. Universities Space Research Association/NASA JSC 
Heer, Martina  Ph.D. University of Bonn 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Villarreal, Jennifer  
Center Contact: 281-483-7306 
jennifer.v311larreal@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Nutrition:Risk of Inadequate Nutrition
(2) Renal:Risk of Renal Stone Formation
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) N13:Can renal stone risk be decreased using nutritional countermeasures? (now Closed-2021)
(2) N3.1:Determine the macronutrient requirements for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(3) N3.2:Determine the micronutrient requirements for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(4) N7.1:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for musculoskeletal health (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS ; STS-133

NOTE: End date changed to 8/31/2016 per PI (Ed., 4/7/15)

NOTE: End date is 8/31/2015 per PI and T. Goodwin/JSC (Ed., 6/22/2011)

NOTE: period of performance changed back to 7/1/2008-6/30/2011 per JSC info (4/2009)

NOTE: period of performance changed to 8/1/2008-9/30/2011 per B. Corbin/JSC (3/2009)

Task Description: Bone loss is not only well documented among astronauts during space flight, but it is a condition that also affects millions of men and women on Earth each year. Many countermeasures have been proposed, and evaluated to several degrees of completion. To date, those showing potential have focused on either exercise or pharmacological interventions, but none have specifically investigated dietary intake alone as a factor to predict or minimize bone loss during space flight. We propose to document how the ratio of acid to base precursors in the diet is related to directional changes in markers of bone resorption and formation during flight and recovery from flight. There is a high likelihood for success in predicting the extent of bone loss from dietary intake patterns among astronauts during space flight given that this concept is strongly anchored in previous ground-based data from our laboratory and others. The notion of manipulating diet to minimize bone loss could also have significant social and economic impacts for NASA and for the general public -- especially given the increasing trends for diets that are high in animal protein and low in fruits and vegetables. The proposed experiments will evaluate a dietary countermeasure for bone loss that has no associated risks for side effects, no requirement for payload mass, and no additional crew time necessary during flight.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This protocol will provide valuable data that will contribute to understanding and counteracting the bone loss of weightlessness -- and more importantly will provide a dietary countermeasure to mitigate space flight-induced bone loss that does not have any associated risks for side effects, requires no payload mass, and will not require any additional crew time. In addition, the knowledge gained will have a significant impact on the general public, who has become accustomed to high-protein diets.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2016 
Task Progress: The study is complete. Seventeen astronauts completed the inflight and postflight protocols. Samples were returned from ISS (International Space Station) on Shuttle flights in 2011 on STS-133, 134, and 135, and on SpaceX missions 1-5. Data have been presented at the Human Research Program Investigator Workshop in 2012, 2015, and 2018, and at the Experimental Biology meeting in April 2012 and March 2015. The data have been published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Advanced publication expected soon (proofs were returned in March 2018).

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/25/2022)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Zwart SR, Rice BL, Dlouhy H, Shackelford LC, Heer M, Koslovsky M, Smith SM. "Dietary acid load and bone turnover during long-duration spaceflight and bed rest." 2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018.

2018 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 22-25, 2018. , Jan-2018

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Zwart SR, Rice BL, Dlouhy H, Shackelford LC, Heer M, Koslovsky M, Smith SM. "Dietary acid load and bone turnover during long-duration spaceflight and bed rest." Am J Clin Nutr. 2018 May 1;107(5):834-44. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy029 ; PubMed PMID: 29722847 , May-2018
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Smith SM, Heer M, Shackelford LC, Sibonga JD, Spatz J, Pietrzyk RA, Hudson EK, Zwart SR. "Bone metabolism and renal stone risk during International Space Station missions." Bone. 2015 Dec;81:712-20. Epub 2015 Oct 8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2015.10.002 ; PubMed PMID: 26456109 , Dec-2015
NASA Technical Documents Smith SM, Zwart SR, Douglas GL, Heer M. "Human adaptation to spaceflight: The role of food and nutrition. Second edition." Houston, TX: NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2021. 255 p. NP-2021-03-003-JSC. https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/atoms/files/human_adaptation_2021_final.pdf , Apr-2021
Project Title:  Dietary Intake Can Predict and Protect Against Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight and Recovery (Pro-K) Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2015 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 07/01/2008  
End Date: 08/31/2016  
Task Last Updated: 04/22/2015 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Smith, Scott M Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division/SK3 
2101 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: scott.m.smith@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7204  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Shackelford, Linda  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Zwart, Sara  USRA 
Heer, Martina  University of Bonn 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Baumann, David  
Center Contact:  
david.k.baumann@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Nutrition:Risk of Inadequate Nutrition
(2) Renal:Risk of Renal Stone Formation
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) N13:Can renal stone risk be decreased using nutritional countermeasures? (now Closed-2021)
(2) N3.1:Determine the macronutrient requirements for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(3) N3.2:Determine the micronutrient requirements for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(4) N7.1:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for musculoskeletal health (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS ; STS-133

NOTE: End date changed to 8/31/2016 per PI (Ed., 4/7/15)

NOTE: End date is 8/31/2015 per PI and T. Goodwin/JSC (Ed., 6/22/2011)

NOTE: period of performance changed back to 7/1/2008-6/30/2011 per JSC info (4/2009)

NOTE: period of performance changed to 8/1/2008-9/30/2011 per B. Corbin/JSC (3/2009)

Task Description: Bone loss is not only well documented among astronauts during space flight, but it is a condition that also affects millions of men and women on Earth each year. Many countermeasures have been proposed, and evaluated to several degrees of completion. To date, those showing potential have focused on either exercise or pharmacological interventions, but none have specifically investigated dietary intake alone as a factor to predict or minimize bone loss during space flight. We propose to document how the ratio of acid to base precursors in the diet is related to directional changes in markers of bone resorption and formation during flight and recovery from flight. There is a high likelihood for success in predicting the extent of bone loss from dietary intake patterns among astronauts during space flight given that this concept is strongly anchored in previous ground-based data from our laboratory and others. The notion of manipulating diet to minimize bone loss could also have significant social and economic impacts for NASA and for the general public -- especially given the increasing trends for diets that are high in animal protein and low in fruits and vegetables. The proposed experiments will evaluate a dietary countermeasure for bone loss that has no associated risks for side effects, no requirement for payload mass, and no additional crew time necessary during flight.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This protocol will provide valuable data that will contribute to understanding and counteracting the bone loss of weightlessness -- and more importantly will provide a dietary countermeasure to mitigate space flight-induced bone loss that does not have any associated risks for side effects, requires no payload mass, and will not require any additional crew time. In addition, the knowledge gained will have a significant impact on the general public, who has become accustomed to high-protein diets.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2015 
Task Progress: All participating subjects have completed the inflight and (almost all) postflight protocols. Samples have been returned from ISS (International Space Station) on Shuttle flights in 2011 on STS-133, 134, and 135, and on SpaceX missions 1-5 (2012-2015). Preliminary data have been presented at the Human Research Program Investigator Workshops in 2012 and 2015, and the Experimental Biology meetings in April 2012 and March 2015.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/25/2022)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Zwart SR, Heer MA, Shackelford LC, Smith SM. "Dietary and Urinary Sulfur Can Predict Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight." Presented at Experimental Biology 2015, Boston, MA, March 28-April 1, 2015.

FASEB Journal. 2015 Apr;29(1 Suppl):738.14. See also http://www.fasebj.org/content/29/1_Supplement.toc for searching. , Apr-2015

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Zwart SR, Heer MA, Shackelford LC, Smith SM. "An updated look at Pro K." 2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 13-15, 2015.

2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 13-15, 2015. , Jan-2015

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Smith SM, Abrams SA, Davis-Street JE, Heer M, O'Brien KO, Wastney ME, Zwart SR. "Fifty years of human space travel: implications for bone and calcium research." Annu Rev Nutr. 2014;34:377-400. Review. Epub 2014 Jun 2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071813-105440 ; PubMed PMID: 24995691 , Aug-2014
Books/Book Chapters Smith SM, Heer M, Zwart SR. "Nutrition and Bone Health in Space." in "Nutrition and Bone Health, 2nd ed." Ed. M.F. Holick, J.W. Nieves. New York: Springer, 2015. Ch. 41, p. 687-705. ISBN: 978-1-4939-2000-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-2001-3_41 , Jan-2015
NASA Technical Documents Smith SM, Zwart SR, Heer MA. "Human Adaptation to Spaceflight: The Role of Nutrition." Houston, TX: National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2014. (NP-2014-10-018-JSC) (ISBN 978-0-16-092629-7). http://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/human-adaptation-to-spaceflight-the-role-of-nutrition.pdf , Nov-2014
Project Title:  Dietary Intake Can Predict and Protect Against Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight and Recovery (Pro-K) Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2014 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 07/01/2008  
End Date: 08/31/2016  
Task Last Updated: 04/11/2014 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Smith, Scott M Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division/SK3 
2101 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: scott.m.smith@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7204  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Shackelford, Linda  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Zwart, Sara  USRA 
Heer, Martina  University of Bonn 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Baumann, David  
Center Contact:  
david.k.baumann@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Nutrition:Risk of Inadequate Nutrition
(2) Renal:Risk of Renal Stone Formation
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) N13:Can renal stone risk be decreased using nutritional countermeasures? (now Closed-2021)
(2) N3.1:Determine the macronutrient requirements for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(3) N3.2:Determine the micronutrient requirements for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(4) N7.1:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for musculoskeletal health (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS ; STS-133

NOTE: End date changed 8/31/2016 per PI (Ed., 4/7/15)

NOTE: End date is 8/31/2015 per PI and T. Goodwin/JSC (Ed., 6/22/2011)

NOTE: period of performance changed back to 7/1/2008-6/30/2011 per JSC info (4/2009)

NOTE: period of performance changed to 8/1/2008-9/30/2011 per B. Corbin/JSC (3/2009)

Task Description: Bone loss is not only well documented among astronauts during space flight, but it is a condition that also affects millions of men and women on Earth each year. Many countermeasures have been proposed, and evaluated to several degrees of completion. To date, those showing potential have focused on either exercise or pharmacological interventions, but none have specifically investigated dietary intake alone as a factor to predict or minimize bone loss during space flight. We propose to document how the ratio of acid to base precursors in the diet is related to directional changes in markers of bone resorption and formation during flight and recovery from flight. There is a high likelihood for success in predicting the extent of bone loss from dietary intake patterns among astronauts during space flight given that this concept is strongly anchored in previous ground-based data from our laboratory and others. The notion of manipulating diet to minimize bone loss could also have significant social and economic impacts for NASA and for the general public -- especially given the increasing trends for diets that are high in animal protein and low in fruits and vegetables. The proposed experiments will evaluate a dietary countermeasure for bone loss that has no associated risks for side effects, no requirement for payload mass, and no additional crew time necessary during flight.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This protocol will provide valuable data that will contribute to understanding and counteracting the bone loss of weightlessness -- and more importantly will provide a dietary countermeasure to mitigate space flight-induced bone loss that does not have any associated risks for side effects, requires no payload mass, and will not require any additional crew time. In addition, the knowledge gained will have a significant impact on the general public, who has become accustomed to high-protein diets.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2014 
Task Progress: Sixteen participating subjects have completed the inflight and (almost all) postflight protocols. As of 4/11/2014, one last subject has completed preflight data collection, and will launch to the International Space Station (ISS) later this year. Samples have been returned on Shuttle flights in 2011 on STS-133, 134, and 135, and on SpaceX 1 and 2 in 2012 and 2013. More sample returns are SpaceX3 in May 2014, and future SpaceX flights. Preliminary data have been presented at the Human Research Program (HRP) Investigator Workshop in 2012 and the Experimental Biology meeting in April 2012.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/25/2022)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Smith SM, Abrams SA, Davis-Street JE, M. Heer M, O’Brien KO, Wastney ME, Zwart SR. "50 years of human space travel: implications for bone and calcium research." Annual Review of Nutrition. Vol. 34, in press as of April 2014. Expected publication July 2014. , Apr-2014
Books/Book Chapters Smith SM, Heer M, Zwart SR. "Nutrition and Bone Health in Space." in "Nutrition and Bone Health, 2nd ed." Ed. M. Holick, J. Nieves. Springer (in press), as of April 2014. Expected publication by January 2015., Apr-2014
Project Title:  Dietary Intake Can Predict and Protect Against Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight and Recovery (Pro-K) Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2013 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 07/01/2008  
End Date: 08/31/2015  
Task Last Updated: 05/13/2013 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Smith, Scott M Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division/SK3 
2101 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: scott.m.smith@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7204  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Shackelford, Linda  NASA JSC 
Zwart, Sara  USRA 
Heer, Martina  University of Bonn 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Baumann, David  
Center Contact:  
david.k.baumann@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Nutrition:Risk of Inadequate Nutrition
(2) Renal:Risk of Renal Stone Formation
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) N13:Can renal stone risk be decreased using nutritional countermeasures? (now Closed-2021)
(2) N3.1:Determine the macronutrient requirements for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(3) N3.2:Determine the micronutrient requirements for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(4) N7.1:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for musculoskeletal health (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS ; STS-133

NOTE: End date is 8/31/2015 per PI and T. Goodwin/JSC (Ed., 6/22/2011)

NOTE: period of performance changed back to 7/1/2008-6/30/2011 per JSC info (4/2009)

NOTE: period of performance changed to 8/1/2008-9/30/2011 per B. Corbin/JSC (3/2009)

Task Description: Bone loss is not only well documented among astronauts during space flight, but it is a condition that also affects millions of men and women on Earth each year. Many countermeasures have been proposed, and evaluated to several degrees of completion. To date, those showing potential have focused on either exercise or pharmacological interventions, but none have specifically investigated dietary intake alone as a factor to predict or minimize bone loss during space flight. We propose to document how the ratio of acid to base precursors in the diet is related to directional changes in markers of bone resorption and formation during flight and recovery from flight. There is a high likelihood for success in predicting the extent of bone loss from dietary intake patterns among astronauts during space flight given that this concept is strongly anchored in previous ground-based data from our laboratory and others. The notion of manipulating diet to minimize bone loss could also have significant social and economic impacts for NASA and for the general public - especially given the increasing trends for diets that are high in animal protein and low in fruits and vegetables. The proposed experiments will evaluate a dietary countermeasure for bone loss that has no associated risks for side effects, no requirement for payload mass, and no additional crew time necessary during flight.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This protocol will provide valuable data that will contribute to understanding and counteracting the bone loss of weightlessness - and more importantly will provide a dietary countermeasure to mitigate spaceflight-induced bone loss that does not have any associated risks for side effects, requires no payload mass, and will not require any additional crew time. In addition, the knowledge gained will have a significant impact on the general public, who has become accustomed to high-protein diets.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2013 
Task Progress: Data collection continues, with the 13th subject onboard ISS currently (plan for is 16+1 insurance). As of 7/1/2013, three subjects are scheduled to be on orbit, with more in the preflight planning and data collection phase of the experiment. Sample returns on SpaceX 1 and 2 in 2012 and 2013 were successful, and analyses continue.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/25/2022)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2013
Project Title:  Dietary Intake Can Predict and Protect Against Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight and Recovery (Pro-K) Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2012 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 07/01/2008  
End Date: 08/31/2015  
Task Last Updated: 05/10/2012 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Smith, Scott M Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division/SK3 
2101 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: scott.m.smith@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7204  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Shackelford, Linda  NASA JSC 
Zwart, Sara  USRA 
Heer, Martina  University of Bonn 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Baumann, David  
Center Contact:  
david.k.baumann@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Nutrition:Risk of Inadequate Nutrition
(2) Renal:Risk of Renal Stone Formation
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) N13:Can renal stone risk be decreased using nutritional countermeasures? (now Closed-2021)
(2) N3.1:Determine the macronutrient requirements for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(3) N3.2:Determine the micronutrient requirements for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(4) N7.1:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for musculoskeletal health (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS ; STS-133

NOTE: End date is 8/31/2015 per PI and T. Goodwin/JSC (Ed., 6/22/2011)

NOTE: period of performance changed back to 7/1/2008-6/30/2011 per JSC info (4/2009)

NOTE: period of performance changed to 8/1/2008-9/30/2011 per B. Corbin/JSC (3/2009)

Task Description: Bone loss is not only well documented among astronauts during space flight, but it is a condition that also affects millions of men and women on Earth each year. Many countermeasures have been proposed, and evaluated to several degrees of completion. To date, those showing potential have focused on either exercise or pharmacological interventions, but none have specifically investigated dietary intake alone as a factor to predict or minimize bone loss during space flight. We propose to document how the ratio of acid to base precursors in the diet is related to directional changes in markers of bone resorption and formation during flight and recovery from flight. There is a high likelihood for success in predicting the extent of bone loss from dietary intake patterns among astronauts during space flight given that this concept is strongly anchored in previous ground-based data from our laboratory and others. The notion of manipulating diet to minimize bone loss could also have significant social and economic impacts for NASA and for the general public - especially given the increasing trends for diets that are high in animal protein and low in fruits and vegetables. The proposed experiments will evaluate a dietary countermeasure for bone loss that has no associated risks for side effects, no requirement for payload mass, and no additional crew time necessary during flight.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This protocol will provide valuable data that will contribute to understanding and counteracting the bone loss of weightlessness - and more importantly will provide a dietary countermeasure to mitigate spaceflight-induced bone loss that does not have any associated risks for side effects, requires no payload mass, and will not require any additional crew time. In addition, the knowledge gained will have a significant impact on the general public, who has become accustomed to high-protein diets.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2012 
Task Progress: Study is progressing well. To date, 5 subjects have completed the inflight portion of the study, with 2 more on orbit. Other are in varied states of preflight planning and data collection; remaining crew pitches continue. Preliminary data have been presented at 2012 HRP Investigators' Workshop meerting, and at the 2012 Experimental Biology meeting.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/25/2022)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Zwart SR, Heer MA, Shackelford LC, Smith SM. "Urinary acid excretion can predict changes in bone metabolism during space flight." Presented at Experimental Biology 2012, San Diego, CA, April 21-25, 2012.

FASEB Journal 2012 Apr;26(Meeting Abstract Supplement):244.2. http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/meeting_abstract/26/1_MeetingAbstracts/244.2?sid=2769b800-eb8c-4eb1-a294-a21a42a3f164 , Apr-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Zwart SR, Heer MA, Shackelford L, Smith SM. "Preliminary data from the Pro K experiment: Urinary acid excretion can predict changes in bone metabolism during space flight." Presented at the 2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14-16, 2012.

2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14-16, 2012. , Feb-2012

Project Title:  Dietary Intake Can Predict and Protect Against Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight and Recovery (Pro-K) Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2011 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 07/01/2008  
End Date: 08/31/2015  
Task Last Updated: 06/29/2011 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Smith, Scott M Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division/SK3 
2101 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: scott.m.smith@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7204  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Shackelford, Linda  NASA JSC 
Zwart, Sara  USRA 
Heer, Martina  University of Bonn 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Baumann, David  
Center Contact:  
david.k.baumann@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Nutrition:Risk of Inadequate Nutrition
(2) Renal:Risk of Renal Stone Formation
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) N13:Can renal stone risk be decreased using nutritional countermeasures? (now Closed-2021)
(2) N3.1:Determine the macronutrient requirements for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(3) N3.2:Determine the micronutrient requirements for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(4) N7.1:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for musculoskeletal health (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS ; STS-133

NOTE: End date is 8/31/2015 per PI and T. Goodwin/JSC (Ed., 6/22/2011)

NOTE: period of performance changed back to 7/1/2008-6/30/2011 per JSC info (4/2009)

NOTE: period of performance changed to 8/1/2008-9/30/2011 per B. Corbin/JSC (3/2009)

Task Description: Bone loss is not only well documented among astronauts during space flight, but it is a condition that also affects millions of men and women on Earth each year. Many countermeasures have been proposed, and evaluated to several degrees of completion. To date, those showing potential have focused on either exercise or pharmacological interventions, but none have specifically investigated dietary intake alone as a factor to predict or minimize bone loss during space flight. We propose to document how the ratio of acid to base precursors in the diet is related to directional changes in markers of bone resorption and formation during flight and recovery from flight. There is a high likelihood for success in predicting the extent of bone loss from dietary intake patterns among astronauts during space flight given that this concept is strongly anchored in previous ground-based data from our laboratory and others. The notion of manipulating diet to minimize bone loss could also have significant social and economic impacts for NASA and for the general public - especially given the increasing trends for diets that are high in animal protein and low in fruits and vegetables. The proposed experiments will evaluate a dietary countermeasure for bone loss that has no associated risks for side effects, no requirement for payload mass, and no additional crew time necessary during flight.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This protocol will provide valuable data that will contribute to understanding and counteracting the bone loss of weightlessness - and more importantly will provide a dietary countermeasure to mitigate spaceflight-induced bone loss that does not have any associated risks for side effects, requires no payload mass, and will not require any additional crew time. In addition, the knowledge gained will have a significant impact on the general public, who has become accustomed to high-protein diets.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2011 
Task Progress: The definition phase has been completed, crew briefings and data collection have begun. The first five participating subjects have completed the inflight protocols, and initial samples were returned in 2011 on STS-133. Analyses have begun, but preliminary data are not yet available. Other participating crewmembers have initiated preflight baseline data collection.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/25/2022)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2011
Project Title:  Dietary Intake Can Predict and Protect Against Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight and Recovery (Pro-K) Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2010 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 07/01/2008  
End Date: 08/31/2015  
Task Last Updated: 05/27/2010 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Smith, Scott M Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division/SK3 
2101 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: scott.m.smith@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7204  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Shackelford, Linda  NASA JSC 
Zwart, Sara  USRA 
Heer, Martina  University of Bonn 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Nutrition:Risk of Inadequate Nutrition
(2) Renal:Risk of Renal Stone Formation
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) N13:Can renal stone risk be decreased using nutritional countermeasures? (now Closed-2021)
(2) N3.1:Determine the macronutrient requirements for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(3) N3.2:Determine the micronutrient requirements for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(4) N7.1:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for musculoskeletal health (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date is 8/31/2015 per PI and T. Goodwin/JSC (Ed., 6/22/2011)

NOTE: period of performance changed back to 7/1/2008-6/30/2011 per JSC info (4/2009)

NOTE: period of performance changed to 8/1/2008-9/30/2011 per B. Corbin/JSC (3/2009)

Task Description: Bone loss is not only well documented among astronauts during space flight, but it is a condition that also affects millions of men and women on Earth each year. Many countermeasures have been proposed, and evaluated to several degrees of completion. To date, those showing potential have focused on either exercise or pharmacological interventions, but none have specifically investigated dietary intake alone as a factor to predict or minimize bone loss during space flight. We propose to document how the ratio of acid to base precursors in the diet is related to directional changes in markers of bone resorption and formation during flight and recovery from flight. There is a high likelihood for success in predicting the extent of bone loss from dietary intake patterns among astronauts during space flight given that this concept is strongly anchored in previous ground-based data from our laboratory and others. The notion of manipulating diet to minimize bone loss could also have significant social and economic impacts for NASA and for the general public - especially given the increasing trends for diets that are high in animal protein and low in fruits and vegetables. The proposed experiments will evaluate a dietary countermeasure for bone loss that has no associated risks for side effects, no requirement for payload mass, and no additional crew time necessary during flight.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This protocol will provide valuable data that will contribute to understanding and counteracting the bone loss of weightlessness - and more importantly will provide a dietary countermeasure to mitigate spaceflight-induced bone loss that does not have any associated risks for side effects, requires no payload mass, and will not require any additional crew time. In addition, the knowledge gained will have a significant impact on the general public, who has become accustomed to high-protein diets.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2010 
Task Progress: To date, following selection, the protocol has been reviewed and modified based on feasibility assessments. Initial documentation has been completed. CPHS review and approval of the modified protocol was obtained in November, 2008, and renewed in November 2009. The first two participating crew launched to ISS in late 2009/early 2010. Other participants have initiated preflight data collection and are awaiting launch.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/25/2022)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2010
Project Title:  Dietary Intake Can Predict and Protect Against Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight and Recovery (Pro-K) Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2009 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 07/01/2008  
End Date: 06/30/2011  
Task Last Updated: 05/14/2009 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Smith, Scott M Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division/SK3 
2101 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: scott.m.smith@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7204  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Shackelford, Linda  NASA JSC 
Zwart, Sara  USRA 
Heer, Martina  University of Bonn 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Meck, J@n  
Center Contact: 281-244-5405 
janice.v.meck@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Nutrition:Risk of Inadequate Nutrition
(2) Renal:Risk of Renal Stone Formation
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) N13:Can renal stone risk be decreased using nutritional countermeasures? (now Closed-2021)
(2) N3.1:Determine the macronutrient requirements for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(3) N3.2:Determine the micronutrient requirements for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(4) N7.1:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for musculoskeletal health (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: period of performance changed back to 7/1/2008-6/30/2011 per JSC info (4/2009)

NOTE: period of performance changed to 8/1/2008-9/30/2011 per B. Corbin/JSC (3/2009)

Task Description: Bone loss is not only well documented among astronauts during space flight, but it is a condition that also affects millions of men and women on Earth each year. Many countermeasures have been proposed, and evaluated to several degrees of completion. To date, those showing potential have focused on either exercise or pharmacological interventions, but none have specifically investigated dietary intake alone as a factor to predict or minimize bone loss during space flight. We propose to document how the ratio of acid to base precursors in the diet is related to directional changes in markers of bone resorption and formation during flight and recovery from flight. There is a high likelihood for success in predicting the extent of bone loss from dietary intake patterns among astronauts during space flight given that this concept is strongly anchored in previous ground-based data from our laboratory and others. The notion of manipulating diet to minimize bone loss could also have significant social and economic impacts for NASA and for the general public - especially given the increasing trends for diets that are high in animal protein and low in fruits and vegetables. The proposed experiments will result in a dietary countermeasure for bone loss that has no associated risks for side effects, no requirement for payload mass, and no additional crew time necessary during flight.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This protocol will provide valuable data that will contribute to understanding and counteracting the bone loss of weightlessness - and more importantly will provide a dietary countermeasure to mitigate spaceflight-induced bone loss that does not have any associated risks for side effects, requires no payload mass, and will not require any additional crew time. In addition, the knowledge gained will have a significant impact on the general public, who has become accustomed to high-protein diets.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2009 
Task Progress: To date, following selection, the protocol has been reviewed and modified based on feasibility assessments. Initial documentation has been completed. CPHS review and approval of the modified protocol was obtained in November, 2008. Final select for flight decision was approved on January 5, 2009. Crew briefings have been initiated, and initial preflight data collections have commenced. The first set of inflight food has been packaged and delivered to KSC for launch on STS-127.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/25/2022)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2009
Project Title:  Dietary Intake Can Predict and Protect Against Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight and Recovery (Pro-K) Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2008 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 07/01/2008  
End Date: 06/30/2011  
Task Last Updated: 08/25/2008 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Smith, Scott M Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division/SK3 
2101 NASA Pkwy 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: scott.m.smith@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-7204  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Shackelford, Linda  NASA JSC 
Zwart, Sara  USRA 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Internal Project 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Meck, J@n  
Center Contact: 281-244-5405 
janice.v.meck@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2007 Crew Health NNJ07ZSA002N 
Grant/Contract No.: Internal Project 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Nutrition:Risk of Inadequate Nutrition
(2) Renal:Risk of Renal Stone Formation
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) N13:Can renal stone risk be decreased using nutritional countermeasures? (now Closed-2021)
(2) N3.1:Determine the macronutrient requirements for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(3) N3.2:Determine the micronutrient requirements for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
(4) N7.1:We need to identify the most important nutritional factors for musculoskeletal health (IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: period of performance changed back to 7/1/2008-6/30/2011 per JSC info (4/2009)

NOTE: period of performance changed to 8/1/2008-9/30/2011 per B. Corbin/JSC (3/2009)

Task Description: Bone loss is not only well documented among astronauts during space flight, but it is a condition that also affects millions of men and women on Earth each year. Many countermeasures have been proposed, and evaluated to several degrees of completion. To date, those showing potential have focused on either exercise or pharmacological interventions, but none have specifically investigated dietary intake alone as a factor to predict or minimize bone loss during space flight. We propose to document how the ratio of acid to base precursors in the diet is related to directional changes in markers of bone resorption and formation during flight and recovery from flight. There is a high likelihood for success in predicting the extent of bone loss from dietary intake patterns among astronauts during space flight given that this concept is strongly anchored in previous ground-based data from our laboratory and others. The notion of manipulating diet to minimize bone loss could also have significant social and economic impacts for NASA and for the general public - especially given the increasing trends for diets that are high in animal protein and low in fruits and vegetables. The proposed experiments will result in a dietary countermeasure for bone loss that has no associated risks for side effects, no requirement for payload mass, and no additional crew time necessary during flight.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: 0

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2008 
Task Progress: New project for FY2008.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 01/25/2022)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2008