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Project Title:  Microgravity Dynamics of Bubble-Geometry Bose-Einstein Condensates Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2022 
Division: Physical Sciences 
Research Discipline/Element:
Physical Sciences: FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS--Fundamental physics 
Start Date: 04/01/2014  
End Date: 09/27/2024  
Task Last Updated: 04/28/2022 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Lundblad, Nathan  Ph.D. / Bates College 
Address:  Department of Physics and Astronomy 
44 Campus Ave 
Lewiston , ME 04240-6018 
Email: nlundbla@bates.edu 
Phone: 207-786-6321  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Bates College 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Aveline, David  Ph.D. Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
Lannert, Courtney  Ph.D. Smith College 
Vishveshwara, Smitha  Ph.D. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: April 2022 report: Postdoctoral associate Joseph Murphree has been working since July 2020 and will finish June 2022. Recruitment has commenced for his successor
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. JPL 1502172 
Responsible Center: NASA JPL 
Grant Monitor: Callas, John  
Center Contact:  
john.l.callas@jpl.nasa.gov 
Unique ID: 9879 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013 Fundamental Physics NNH13ZTT002N (Cold Atom Laboratory--CAL) 
Grant/Contract No.: JPL 1502172 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Program--Element: FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS--Fundamental physics 
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date changed to 9/27/2024 per U. Israelsson/JPL (Ed., 10/20/21)

NOTE: End date changed to 3/31/2022 per B. Carpenter/NASA HQ (Ed., 1/4/2021)

NOTE: New end date is 10/30/2020 per JPL (Ed., 5/21/19)

Task Description: Notions of geometry, topology, and dimensionality have directed the historical development of quantum-gas physics. With a toolbox of forces used to confine, guide, and excite Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) or degenerate Fermi gases (DFG), physicists have used quantum gases to test fundamental ideas in quantum theory, statistical mechanics, and in recent years notions of strongly-correlated many-body physics from the condensed-matter world.

We propose a specific program to explore a trapping geometry for quantum gases that is both tantalizing theoretically and prohibitively difficult to attain terrestrially: a quantum gas in a bubble geometry, i.e., a trap formed by a spherical or ellipsoidal shell structure, confining a 2D quantum gas to the surface of an experimentally-controlled topologically-connected “bubble.” The physics of a quantum gas confined to such a surface has not been explored terrestrially due to the limitations of gravitational sag; interesting work has certainly been done with gases confined to the lower regions of bubble potentials, but the fully symmetric situation has yet to be explored. The low-energy excitations of such a system are unexplored, and notions of vortex creation and behavior as well as Kosterlitz-Thouless physics are tantalizing aims as well. The solid-state modeling goals of the optical-lattice physics community are also fundamentally connected to the system, as the canonical Mott-insulator/superfluid transition features superfluid shells isolated between insulating regions.

The central method to reach the sought-after bubble-geometry BEC or DFG is that of rf or microwave dressing of the bare trapping potentials provided by the Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL) “chip trap.” Radiofrequency dressing has been used conceptually through "rf-knife" evaporative cooling, but more recently through explicit construction of adiabatic potentials for interferometry, and shell-trap construction for both thermal and quantum gases. The proposed work is a window into a physical regime that is quite difficult to achieve terrestrially due to trap distortion; given the advantages of a microgravity environment, NASA CAL is uniquely positioned to realize the physics goals of this proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This work, while focused on the fundamental physics of ultracold atoms and not directly connected to human life, has a similar impact to life on Earth as that of all fundamental physics; it broadens our understanding of the physical world and helps us further cement our collective picture of quantum mechanics as "the way the world works." It explores the limits of how large Bose-Einstein condensates can be made, and to what extent the gravity-well of terrestrial labs render certain investigations difficult or impossible. The observations made aboard CAL through this project are a clear demonstration that physical insight can sometimes require microgravity facilities to be fully developed, and that spaceborne atomic physics experiments can be valuable contributions to our collective scientific efforts.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2022 
Task Progress: The 2021-2022 period of this work was focused on continued data collection from the Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL) instrument, which had periodic data acquisition sessions in the new Phase 2 ("SM3") generation CAL apparatus. Lundblad and postdoctoral associate Joe Murphree were central drivers of this work in this period, together with our partner at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), David Aveline, who in addition to service as co-investigator was our primary liaison to experimental operations. Theory co-investigators Smitha Vishveshwara and student Brendan Rhyno provided regular insight and support, especially in regard to computational modeling of observed phenomena. Phase 2 ("SM3") of the CAL operation is ongoing, as in the previous year. With a new atom chip geometry, SM3 permits us to explore shells with aspect ratios closer to spherical, and also with reduced inhomogeneity due to a larger rf coil. We have recently focused mostly on a single trap/shell configuration (of several explored in the previous year) and have added data-taking from multiple spatial directions to our experimental repertoire, confirming that observed structures are indeed shell-like when viewed from multiple directions. Given initial proof-of-principle of Bragg-beam interferometry, we have continued developing model intuition for planned future experiments in that area. The goal of this exploration is to potentially provide thermometry information from a Bragg spectrum that would obviate the need for long time-of-flight expansion. In coming tests, we hope to use the multifrequency capability of CAL (microwave +rf, rf+rf) to gain clearer understanding of the bubble system. We initiated tests of the microwave version of the bubble-generating procedure (microwave ramps instead of rf ramps) with inconclusive but promising initial results.

Continued theoretical development occurred within the shell collaboration, leading to published work from Rhyno, et al. focusing on thermodynamics in ultracold shells ( https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.104.063310 ). Lundblad also continued collaborative discussion with Dr. Barry Garraway of Sussex regarding the potential to use microwave fields aboard CAL to enhance bubble quality; a document regarding this technique titled "Optimised shell potential for microgravity Bose-Einstein condensates" is in final preparation.

Many years of effort from students and postdocs culminated in final analysis related to (and writing of a) paper presenting our first results from the CAL experiment. "Observation of ultracold atomic bubbles in orbital microgravity" is in press in the journal Nature, and is also available on the arXiv preprint server ( https://arxiv.org/abs/2108.05880).

Results of our research activities were presented at several conferences, including the 2021 American Physical Society (APS) Meeting of the Division of Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics (DAMOP). Additionally, Lundblad presented these results at the 2021 Marcel Grossman meetings.

Bibliography: Description: (Last Updated: 04/28/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography
 
Articles in Other Journals or Periodicals Carollo RA, Aveline DC, Rhyno B, Vishveshwara S, Lannert C, Murphree JD, Elliott ER, Williams JR, Thompson RJ, . Lundblad N. "Observation of ultracold atomic bubbles in orbital microgravity." arXiv preprint server. Posted August 12, 2021. https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2108.05880 , Aug-2021
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Rhyno B, Lundblad N, Aveline DC, Lannert C, Vishveshwara S. "Thermodynamics in expanding shell-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates." Phys. Rev. A. 2021;104(6):063310. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.104.063310 , Dec-2021
Project Title:  Microgravity Dynamics of Bubble-Geometry Bose-Einstein Condensates Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2021 
Division: Physical Sciences 
Research Discipline/Element:
Physical Sciences: FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS--Fundamental physics 
Start Date: 04/01/2014  
End Date: 09/27/2024  
Task Last Updated: 04/01/2021 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Lundblad, Nathan  Ph.D. / Bates College 
Address:  Department of Physics and Astronomy 
44 Campus Ave 
Lewiston , ME 04240-6018 
Email: nlundbla@bates.edu 
Phone: 207-786-6321  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Bates College 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Aveline, David  Ph.D. Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
Lannert, Courtney  Ph.D. Smith College 
Vishveshwara, Smitha  Ph.D. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: April 2021 report: Postdoctoral associate Ryan Carollo departed October 2019; new postdoctoral associate Joseph Murphree started July 2020.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. JPL 1502172 
Responsible Center: NASA JPL 
Grant Monitor: Callas, John  
Center Contact:  
john.l.callas@jpl.nasa.gov 
Unique ID: 9879 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013 Fundamental Physics NNH13ZTT002N (Cold Atom Laboratory--CAL) 
Grant/Contract No.: JPL 1502172 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Program--Element: FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS--Fundamental physics 
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date changed to 9/27/2024 per U. Israelsson/JPL (Ed., 10/20/21)

NOTE: End date changed to 3/31/2022 per B. Carpenter/NASA HQ (Ed., 1/4/2021)

NOTE: New end date is 10/30/2020 per JPL (Ed., 5/21/19)

Task Description: Notions of geometry, topology, and dimensionality have directed the historical development of quantum-gas physics. With a toolbox of forces used to confine, guide, and excite Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) or degenerate Fermi gases (DFG), physicists have used quantum gases to test fundamental ideas in quantum theory, statistical mechanics, and in recent years notions of strongly-correlated many-body physics from the condensed-matter world.

We propose a specific program to explore a trapping geometry for quantum gases that is both tantalizing theoretically and prohibitively difficult to attain terrestrially: a quantum gas in a bubble geometry, i.e., a trap formed by a spherical or ellipsoidal shell structure, confining a 2D quantum gas to the surface of an experimentally-controlled topologically-connected “bubble.” The physics of a quantum gas confined to such a surface has not been explored terrestrially due to the limitations of gravitational sag; interesting work has certainly been done with gases confined to the lower regions of bubble potentials, but the fully symmetric situation has yet to be explored. The low-energy excitations of such a system are unexplored, and notions of vortex creation and behavior as well as Kosterlitz-Thouless physics are tantalizing aims as well. The solid-state modeling goals of the optical-lattice physics community are also fundamentally connected to the system, as the canonical Mott-insulator/superfluid transition features superfluid shells isolated between insulating regions.

The central method to reach the sought-after bubble-geometry BEC or DFG is that of rf or microwave dressing of the bare trapping potentials provided by the Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL) “chip trap.” Radiofrequency dressing has been used conceptually through "rf-knife" evaporative cooling, but more recently through explicit construction of adiabatic potentials for interferometry, and shell-trap construction for both thermal and quantum gases. The proposed work is a window into a physical regime that is quite difficult to achieve terrestrially due to trap distortion; given the advantages of a microgravity environment, NASA CAL is uniquely positioned to realize the physics goals of this proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This work, while focused on the fundamental physics of ultracold atoms and not directly connected to human life, has a similar impact to life on Earth as that of all fundamental physics; it broadens our understanding of the physical world and helps us further cement our collective picture of quantum mechanics as "the way the world works." It explores the limits of how large Bose-Einstein condensates can be made, and to what extent the gravity-well of terrestrial labs render certain investigations difficult or impossible. The observations made aboard CAL through this project are a clear demonstration that physical insight can sometimes require microgravity facilities to be fully developed, and that spaceborne atomic physics experiments can be valuable contributions to our collective scientific efforts.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2021 
Task Progress: The FY2020 and FY2021 periods of this work were centrally focused on data collection from the CAL instrument, which began collection of ultracold-shell data in December 2018 and throughout 2019. Lundblad and postdoctoral associates Ryan Carollo and Joseph Murphree were central drivers of this work in this period, together with our partner at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), David Aveline, who in addition to service as co-investigator was our primary liaison to experimental operations. Theory co-investigators Smitha Vishveshwara and Courtney Lannert provided helpful insight and critical support, especially in regard to computational modeling of observed phenomena.

Phase 1 ("SM2") of the operation continued until the end of calendar 2019. Our datasets from this period focus on the generation of ultracold shell systems, confirming theoretical predictions that microgravity would enable their occurrence. We performed thermometry on the resulting shells as a function of size, and also explored the wide variety of shell sizes that could be created with this protocol. Reduction and analysis of this data is in process. A key conclusion of this work appears to be that while ultracold shells are possible in microgravity, maintaining the BEC state across the inflation process is difficult, due to nonadiabiaticity and low initial condensate fraction. Nevertheless, these observations represent physics impossible (or prohibitively difficult) to observe in a terrestrial setting, and have opened a new pathway in ultracold atomic physics research enabled by CAL and the International Space Station (ISS).

Phase 2 ("SM3") of the CAL operation commenced soon after and is ongoing. With a new atom chip geometry, SM3 permits us to explore shells with more spherical aspect ratios and possessing reduced inhomogeneity due to a larger rf coil. We have explored the parameter space of shell geometry and temperature with several different trap configurations, and we have also initiated an effort to use CAL's atom-interferometer Bragg beam to probe the nature of these ultracold shells. Looking ahead to upcoming upgrades, we hope to apply a second rf/microwave field in order to evaporatively cool the samples in the shell, thereby avoiding the heating associated with shell inflation; we also hope to use an additional signal associated with an upcoming upgrade to perform rf/microwave spectroscopy of the shell state in order to better understand the nature of Bose–Einstein condensation in a shell geometry.

Continued theoretical development occurred within the shell collaboration, leading to published work from Padavic et al. focusing on potential vortex physics in ultracold shells. Lundblad also continued collaborative discussions with Dr. Barry Garraway of Sussex regarding the potential to use microwave fields aboard CAL to enhance bubble quality.

Many years of modeling effort from students and postdocs culminated in a paper presenting the idea of the shell project and realistic modeling of its experimental sequences ( https://doi.org/10.1038/s41526-019-0087-y ; see also Bibliography section). This paper is proving to be a useful resource for theorists around the world seeking to obtain a sense of the capabilities of CAL in the shell-physics context.

Results of our research activities were presented at several conferences, including the 2019 and 2020 American Physical Society (APS) Meetings of the Division of Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics (DAMOP). Additionally, Lundblad traveled to the December 2019 workshop in Ulm, Germany, focusing on the development of a successor instrument to CAL (Bose-Einstein Condensate and Cold Atom Laboratory (BECCAL)), and presented preliminary data.

Bibliography: Description: (Last Updated: 04/28/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Lundblad N, Carollo RA, Aveline DC, Lannert C, Padavic K, Rhyno B, Vishveshwara S. "Observations of ultracold atoms in microgravity shell potentials." 51st Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Portland, Oregon, June 1–5, 2020.

Bulletin of the American Physical Society. 2020;65(4):Abstract: E01.00106. https://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/DAMOP20/Session/E01.106 , Jun-2020

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Rhyno B, Padavic K, Sun K, Lannert C, Lundblad N, Vishveshwara S. "Thermodynamics and vortex physics in shell-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates." 51st Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Portland, Oregon, June 1–5, 2020.

Bulletin of the American Physical Society. 2020 Jun;65(4):Abstract: Q01.00167. https://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/DAMOP20/Session/Q01.167 , Jun-2020

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Padavic K, Sun K, Lannert C, Vishveshwara S. "Vortex Physics in Hollow Bose-Einstein Condensates." 50th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, May 27–31, 2019.

Bulletin of the American Physical Society. 2019 May;64(4):Abstract: E01.00121. http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/DAMOP19/Session/E01.121 , May-2019

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Carollo RA, Gold M, Jiang X, Padavic K, Vishveshwara S, Lannert C, Aveline D, Lundblad N. "Shell-Geometry Bose-Einstein Condensates in Microgravity." 50th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, May 27–31, 2019.

Bulletin of the American Physical Society. 2019 May;64(4):Abstract: E01.00131. http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/DAMOP19/Session/E01.131 , May-2019

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Lundblad N, Carollo RA, Lannert C, Gold MJ, Jiang X, Paseltiner D, Sergay N, Aveline DC. "Shell potentials for microgravity Bose-Einstein condensates." npj Microgravity. 2019 Dec 4;5:30. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41526-019-0087-y ; PMID: 31815180; PMCID: PMC6892894 , Dec-2019
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Padavic K., Sun K, Lannert C, Vishveshwara S. "Vortex-antivortex physics in shell-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates." Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics. 2020 Oct;102(4):043305. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.102.043305 , Oct-2020
Dissertations and Theses Padavic-Callaghan K. (Karmela Padavic-Callaghan) "Hollow condensates, topological ladders and quasiperiodic chains." Dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, July 2020. , Jul-2020
Project Title:  Microgravity Dynamics of Bubble-Geometry Bose-Einstein Condensates Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2019 
Division: Physical Sciences 
Research Discipline/Element:
Physical Sciences: FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS--Fundamental physics 
Start Date: 04/01/2014  
End Date: 10/30/2020  
Task Last Updated: 05/20/2019 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Lundblad, Nathan  Ph.D. / Bates College 
Address:  Department of Physics and Astronomy 
44 Campus Ave 
Lewiston , ME 04240-6018 
Email: nlundbla@bates.edu 
Phone: 207-786-6321  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Bates College 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Aveline, David  Ph.D. Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
Lannert, Courtney  Ph.D. Smith College 
Vishveshwara, Smitha  Ph.D. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: April 2019 report: New postdoctoral candidate Ryan Carollo was hired (starting September 2018).
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. JPL 1502172 
Responsible Center: NASA JPL 
Grant Monitor: Callas, John  
Center Contact:  
john.l.callas@jpl.nasa.gov 
Unique ID: 9879 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013 Fundamental Physics NNH13ZTT002N (Cold Atom Laboratory--CAL) 
Grant/Contract No.: JPL 1502172 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Program--Element: FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS--Fundamental physics 
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: New end date is 10/30/2020 per JPL (Ed., 5/21/19)

Task Description: Notions of geometry, topology, and dimensionality have directed the historical development of quantum-gas physics. With a toolbox of forces used to confine, guide, and excite Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) or degenerate Fermi gases (DFG), physicists have used quantum gases to test fundamental ideas in quantum theory, statistical mechanics, and in recent years notions of strongly-correlated many-body physics from the condensed-matter world.

We propose a specific program to explore a trapping geometry for quantum gases that is both tantalizing theoretically and prohibitively difficult to attain terrestrially: a quantum gas in a bubble geometry, i.e., a trap formed by a spherical or ellipsoidal shell structure, confining a 2D quantum gas to the surface of an experimentally-controlled topologically-connected “bubble.” The physics of a quantum gas confined to such a surface has not been explored terrestrially due to the limitations of gravitational sag; interesting work has certainly been done with gases confined to the lower regions of bubble potentials, but the fully symmetric situation has yet to be explored. The low-energy excitations of such a system are unexplored, and notions of vortex creation and behavior as well as Kosterlitz-Thouless physics are tantalizing aims as well. The solid-state modeling goals of the optical-lattice physics community are also fundamentally connected to the system, as the canonical Mott-insulator/superfluid transition features superfluid shells isolated between insulating regions.

The central method to reach the sought-after bubble-geometry BEC or DFG is that of rf or microwave dressing of the bare trapping potentials provided by the Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL) “chip trap.” Radiofrequency dressing has been used conceptually through "rf-knife" evaporative cooling, but more recently through explicit construction of adiabatic potentials for interferometry, and shell-trap construction for both thermal and quantum gases. The proposed work is a window into a physical regime that is quite difficult to achieve terrestrially due to trap distortion; given the advantages of a microgravity environment, NASA CAL is uniquely positioned to realize the physics goals of this proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2019 
Task Progress: The fifth year of this work focused on immediate preparation for CAL launch and further modeling of the radiofrequency-dressing process that will occur aboard CAL and how it can be used to create shell-geometry Bose-Einstein condensates in the presence of practical limitations. After launch in May 2018, several rounds of data were taken through the end of this reporting period and are currently undergoing analysis.

Data focused on understanding residual micromotion in the expanded atom traps (‘sloshing’) and validation of trap models--preliminary results largely show agreement at the few-percent level in trap frequencies.

Initial attempts at generating shell-trapped ultracold clouds-- the central goal of this project-- were made, and showed preliminary positive signs, although anticipated inhomogeneities appear to play expected roles.

Further communication took place between Co-Investigator (Co-I) Aveline and Principal Investigator (PI) Lundblad regarding flight hardware, and detailed communication took place between Co-I Lannert and PI Lundblad regarding numerical simulation of these CAL experiments.

Lundblad also extended collaborative work with other theorists in the field regarding specific modeling issues, particularly Barry Garraway of Sussex. Progress on the construction of CAL-like prototype hardware at Bates was begun using a newly-arrived atom chip apparatus from ColdQuanta. Lundblad’s work continued to focused mostly on understanding potential issues with trap inhomogeneity aboard CAL that could result in incomplete shell-BEC population or asymmetric shells, as well as beginning to model adiabaticity in these systems.

Lannert and Vishveshwara’s work continued to focus on simulation of collective modes, and led to a paper published (Sun, K., Padavic, K., Yang, F., Vishveshwara, S. & Lannert, C. Static and dynamic properties of shell-shaped condensates. Phys Rev A 98, 013609 (2018).)

Bibliography: Description: (Last Updated: 04/28/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Sun K, Padavic K, Yang F, Vishveshwara S, Lannert C. "Static and dynamic properties of shell-shaped condensates." Phys Rev A. 2018 Jul;98:013609. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.98.013609 , Jul-2018
Significant Media Coverage Gibney E. " 'Universe’s coolest lab set to open up quantum world.' Article in Nature News section about research on the Cold Atom Laboratory." Nature. 2018 May 10;557:151–2. https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-05111-2 , May-2018
Significant Media Coverage Chen S. "Article about research on the Cold Atom Laboratory, 'The Quest to Make Super Cold Quantum Blobs in Space.' " Wired Magazine, June 25, 2018. https://www.wired.com/story/the-quest-to-make-super-cold-quantum-blobs-in-space/ , Jun-2018
Project Title:  Microgravity Dynamics of Bubble-Geometry Bose-Einstein Condensates Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2018 
Division: Physical Sciences 
Research Discipline/Element:
Physical Sciences: FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS--Fundamental physics 
Start Date: 04/01/2014  
End Date: 04/30/2019  
Task Last Updated: 05/28/2018 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Lundblad, Nathan  Ph.D. / Bates College 
Address:  Department of Physics and Astronomy 
44 Campus Ave 
Lewiston , ME 04240-6018 
Email: nlundbla@bates.edu 
Phone: 207-786-6321  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Bates College 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Aveline, David  Ph.D. Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
Lannert, Courtney  Ph.D. Smith College 
Vishveshwara, Smitha  Ph.D. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. JPL 1502172 
Responsible Center: NASA JPL 
Grant Monitor: Callas, John  
Center Contact:  
john.l.callas@jpl.nasa.gov 
Unique ID: 9879 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013 Fundamental Physics NNH13ZTT002N (Cold Atom Laboratory--CAL) 
Grant/Contract No.: JPL 1502172 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Program--Element: FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS--Fundamental physics 
Task Description: Notions of geometry, topology, and dimensionality have directed the historical development of quantum-gas physics. With a toolbox of forces used to confine, guide, and excite Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) or degenerate Fermi gases (DFG), physicists have used quantum gases to test fundamental ideas in quantum theory, statistical mechanics, and in recent years notions of strongly-correlated many-body physics from the condensed-matter world.

We propose a specific program to explore a trapping geometry for quantum gases that is both tantalizing theoretically and prohibitively difficult to attain terrestrially: a quantum gas in a bubble geometry, i.e., a trap formed by a spherical or ellipsoidal shell structure, confining a 2D quantum gas to the surface of an experimentally-controlled topologically-connected “bubble.” The physics of a quantum gas confined to such a surface has not been explored terrestrially due to the limitations of gravitational sag; interesting work has certainly been done with gases confined to the lower regions of bubble potentials, but the fully symmetric situation has yet to be explored. The low-energy excitations of such a system are unexplored, and notions of vortex creation and behavior as well as Kosterlitz-Thouless physics are tantalizing aims as well. The solid-state modeling goals of the optical-lattice physics community are also fundamentally connected to the system, as the canonical Mott-insulator/superfluid transition features superfluid shells isolated between insulating regions.

The central method to reach the sought-after bubble-geometry BEC or DFG is that of rf or microwave dressing of the bare trapping potentials provided by the Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL) “chip trap.” Radiofrequency dressing has been used conceptually through "rf-knife" evaporative cooling, but more recently through explicit construction of adiabatic potentials for interferometry, and shell-trap construction for both thermal and quantum gases. The proposed work is a window into a physical regime that is quite difficult to achieve terrestrially due to trap distortion; given the advantages of a microgravity environment, NASA CAL is uniquely positioned to realize the physics goals of this proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2018 
Task Progress: The fourth year of JPL 1502172 focused on preparation for CAL launch and further modeling of the radiofrequency-dressing process that will occur aboard CAL and how it can be used to create shell-geometry Bose-Einstein condensates in the presence of practical limitations. Further communication took place between Co-Investigator (Co-I) Aveline and Principal Investigator (PI) Lundblad regarding flight hardware, and detailed communication took place between Co-I Lannert and PI Lundblad regarding numerical simulation of potential CAL experiments. Lundblad also extended collaborative work with other theorists in the field regarding specific modeling issues. Progress on the construction of CAL-like prototype hardware at Bates was delayed until the arrival of a new repaired atom chip. Lundblad’s work continued to focused mostly on understanding potential issues with trap inhomogeneity aboard CAL that could result in incomplete shell-BEC population or asymmetric shells, as well as beginning to model adiabaticity in these systems.

Lannert and Vishveshwara’s work continued to focus on simulation of collective modes, and led to a paper published and another in review ("Static and Dynamic Properties of Shell-shaped Condensates" https://arxiv.org/abs/1712.04428 ).

Work with Aveline continued to address validation issues remaining after the 2015 SCR (science concept review), and led to a successful CAL ORT in April 2018.

Bibliography: Description: (Last Updated: 04/28/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Padavic K, Sun K, Lannert C, Vishveshwara S. "Physics of hollow Bose-Einstein condensates." EPL (Europhysics Letters). 2017 Oct;120(2):20004. https://doi.org/10.1209/0295-5075/120/20004 , Oct-2017
Significant Media Coverage Cho A "Trapped in orbit. Summary of our work aboard the Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL)." Science. 2017 Sep 8;357(6355):986-9. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.357.6355.986 ; PubMed PMID: 28883068 , Sep-2017
Project Title:  Microgravity Dynamics of Bubble-Geometry Bose-Einstein Condensates Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2017 
Division: Physical Sciences 
Research Discipline/Element:
Physical Sciences: FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS--Fundamental physics 
Start Date: 04/01/2014  
End Date: 04/30/2019  
Task Last Updated: 03/31/2017 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Lundblad, Nathan  Ph.D. / Bates College 
Address:  Department of Physics and Astronomy 
44 Campus Ave 
Lewiston , ME 04240-6018 
Email: nlundbla@bates.edu 
Phone: 207-786-6321  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Bates College 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Aveline, David  Ph.D. Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
Lannert, Courtney  Ph.D. Smith College 
Vishveshwara, Smitha  Ph.D. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. JPL 1502172 
Responsible Center: NASA JPL 
Grant Monitor: Callas, John  
Center Contact:  
john.l.callas@jpl.nasa.gov 
Unique ID: 9879 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013 Fundamental Physics NNH13ZTT002N (Cold Atom Laboratory--CAL) 
Grant/Contract No.: JPL 1502172 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Program--Element: FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS--Fundamental physics 
Task Description: Notions of geometry, topology, and dimensionality have directed the historical development of quantum-gas physics. With a toolbox of forces used to confine, guide, and excite Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) or degenerate Fermi gases (DFG), physicists have used quantum gases to test fundamental ideas in quantum theory, statistical mechanics, and in recent years notions of strongly-correlated many-body physics from the condensed-matter world.

We propose a specific program to explore a trapping geometry for quantum gases that is both tantalizing theoretically and prohibitively difficult to attain terrestrially: a quantum gas in a bubble geometry, i.e., a trap formed by a spherical or ellipsoidal shell structure, confining a 2D quantum gas to the surface of an experimentally-controlled topologically-connected “bubble.” The physics of a quantum gas confined to such a surface has not been explored terrestrially due to the limitations of gravitational sag; interesting work has certainly been done with gases confined to the lower regions of bubble potentials, but the fully symmetric situation has yet to be explored. The low-energy excitations of such a system are unexplored, and notions of vortex creation and behavior as well as Kosterlitz-Thouless physics are tantalizing aims as well. The solid-state modeling goals of the optical-lattice physics community are also fundamentally connected to the system, as the canonical Mott-insulator/superfluid transition features superfluid shells isolated between insulating regions.

The central method to reach the sought-after bubble-geometry BEC or DFG is that of rf or microwave dressing of the bare trapping potentials provided by the Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL) “chip trap.” Radiofrequency dressing has been used conceptually through "rf-knife" evaporative cooling, but more recently through explicit construction of adiabatic potentials for interferometry, and shell-trap construction for both thermal and quantum gases. The proposed work is a window into a physical regime that is quite difficult to achieve terrestrially due to trap distortion; given the advantages of a microgravity environment, NASA CAL is uniquely positioned to realize the physics goals of this proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2017 
Task Progress: The third year of JPL 1502172 focused on further modeling of the radiofrequency-dressing process that will occur aboard CAL and how it can be used to create shell-geometry Bose-Einstein condensates in the presence of practical limitations. Extensive communication took place between Co-Investigator Aveline and Principal Investigator (PI) Lundblad regarding flight hardware, and extensive communication took place between Co-I Lannert and PI Lundblad regarding numerical simulation of potential CAL experiments. Progress on the construction of CAL-like prototype hardware at Bates continued.

Lundblad’s work continued to focused mostly on understanding potential issues with trap inhomogeneity aboard CAL that could result in incomplete shell-BEC population or asymmetric shells. A significant insight was gained regarding potential correction of antenna-coupling inhomogeneity which should be implemented on future versions of CAL.

Lannert and Vishveshwara’s work continued to focus on simulation of collective modes, and led to a paper currently in review ("Physics of hollow Bose-Einstein condensates." https://arxiv.org/abs/1612.05809 ).

Work with Aveline continued to address validation issues remaining after the 2015 Science Concept Review (SCR).

Bibliography: Description: (Last Updated: 04/28/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography
 
 None in FY 2017
Project Title:  Microgravity Dynamics of Bubble-Geometry Bose-Einstein Condensates Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2016 
Division: Physical Sciences 
Research Discipline/Element:
Physical Sciences: FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS--Fundamental physics 
Start Date: 04/01/2014  
End Date: 04/30/2019  
Task Last Updated: 06/01/2016 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Lundblad, Nathan  Ph.D. / Bates College 
Address:  Department of Physics and Astronomy 
44 Campus Ave 
Lewiston , ME 04240-6018 
Email: nlundbla@bates.edu 
Phone: 207-786-6321  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Bates College 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Aveline, David  Ph.D. Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
Lannert, Courtney  Ph.D. Smith College 
Vishveshwara, Smitha  Ph.D. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. JPL 1502172 
Responsible Center: NASA JPL 
Grant Monitor: Callas, John  
Center Contact:  
john.l.callas@jpl.nasa.gov 
Unique ID: 9879 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013 Fundamental Physics NNH13ZTT002N (Cold Atom Laboratory--CAL) 
Grant/Contract No.: JPL 1502172 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Program--Element: FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS--Fundamental physics 
Task Description: Notions of geometry, topology, and dimensionality have directed the historical development of quantum-gas physics. With a toolbox of forces used to confine, guide, and excite Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) or degenerate Fermi gases (DFG), physicists have used quantum gases to test fundamental ideas in quantum theory, statistical mechanics, and in recent years notions of strongly-correlated many-body physics from the condensed-matter world.

We propose a specific program to explore a trapping geometry for quantum gases that is both tantalizing theoretically and prohibitively difficult to attain terrestrially: a quantum gas in a bubble geometry, i.e., a trap formed by a spherical or ellipsoidal shell structure, confining a 2D quantum gas to the surface of an experimentally-controlled topologically-connected “bubble.” The physics of a quantum gas confined to such a surface has not been explored terrestrially due to the limitations of gravitational sag; interesting work has certainly been done with gases confined to the lower regions of bubble potentials, but the fully symmetric situation has yet to be explored. The low-energy excitations of such a system are unexplored, and notions of vortex creation and behavior as well as Kosterlitz-Thouless physics are tantalizing aims as well. The solid-state modeling goals of the optical-lattice physics community are also fundamentally connected to the system, as the canonical Mott-insulator/superfluid transition features superfluid shells isolated between insulating regions.

The central method to reach the sought-after bubble-geometry BEC or DFG is that of rf or microwave dressing of the bare trapping potentials provided by the Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL) “chip trap.” Radiofrequency dressing has been used conceptually through "rf-knife" evaporative cooling, but more recently through explicit construction of adiabatic potentials for interferometry, and shell-trap construction for both thermal and quantum gases. The proposed work is a window into a physical regime that is quite difficult to achieve terrestrially due to trap distortion; given the advantages of a microgravity environment, NASA CAL is uniquely positioned to realize the physics goals of this proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2016 
Task Progress: The second year of Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) 1502172 focused on more detailed studies of what possible experiments could be done once CAL is launched, and specific planning in terms of validation and the SCR process. Extensive communication took place between Co-Investigator (Co-I) Aveline and Principal Investigator (PI) Lundblad regarding flight hardware, and extensive communication took place between Co-I Lannert and PI Lundblad regarding numerical simulation of potential CAL experiments. Progress on the construction of CAL-like prototype hardware at Bates continued.

Lundblad’s work focused mostly on understanding potential issues with trap inhomogeneity aboard CAL that could result in incomplete shell-BEC population or asymmetric shells. The significant insights here were that the asymmetric anharmonicity of the atom-chip trap, as well as the impossibility of unity aspect ratio, are prime sources of inhomogeneity. Additionally, the rf antenna results in an inhomogeneous rf coupling which we continue to model. The model outputs are potential-energy surfaces for various chip-current configurations.

Lannert’s work focused on numerical simulations (Gross-Pitaevskii) of collective excitations and ballistic-flight interference of shell BECs. They were guided by model potential-energy surfaces provided by Lundblad. This work has led to a publication in preparation, and resulted in a new collaboration with Prof. Smitha Vishveshwara of the University of Illinois.

Together with JPL testbed work performed by Aveline allowing validation of the general proposed concepts, this collaboration passed the NASA Science Concept Review in August 2015.

Bibliography: Description: (Last Updated: 04/28/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography
 
 None in FY 2016
Project Title:  Microgravity Dynamics of Bubble-Geometry Bose-Einstein Condensates Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2015 
Division: Physical Sciences 
Research Discipline/Element:
Physical Sciences: FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS--Fundamental physics 
Start Date: 04/01/2014  
End Date: 04/30/2019  
Task Last Updated: 12/15/2015 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Lundblad, Nathan  Ph.D. / Bates College 
Address:  Department of Physics and Astronomy 
44 Campus Ave 
Lewiston , ME 04240-6018 
Email: nlundbla@bates.edu 
Phone: 207-786-6321  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Bates College 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Aveline, David  Ph.D. Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
Lannert, Courtney  Ph.D. Smith College 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. JPL 1502172 
Responsible Center: NASA JPL 
Grant Monitor: Callas, John  
Center Contact:  
john.l.callas@jpl.nasa.gov 
Unique ID: 9879 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013 Fundamental Physics NNH13ZTT002N (Cold Atom Laboratory--CAL) 
Grant/Contract No.: JPL 1502172 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Program--Element: FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS--Fundamental physics 
Task Description: Notions of geometry, topology, and dimensionality have directed the historical development of quantum-gas physics. With a toolbox of forces used to confine, guide, and excite Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) or degenerate Fermi gases (DFG), physicists have used quantum gases to test fundamental ideas in quantum theory, statistical mechanics, and in recent years notions of strongly-correlated many-body physics from the condensed-matter world.

We propose a specific program to explore a trapping geometry for quantum gases that is both tantalizing theoretically and prohibitively difficult to attain terrestrially: a quantum gas in a bubble geometry, i.e., a trap formed by a spherical or ellipsoidal shell structure, confining a 2D quantum gas to the surface of an experimentally-controlled topologically-connected “bubble.” The physics of a quantum gas confined to such a surface has not been explored terrestrially due to the limitations of gravitational sag; interesting work has certainly been done with gases confined to the lower regions of bubble potentials, but the fully symmetric situation has yet to be explored. The low-energy excitations of such a system are unexplored, and notions of vortex creation and behavior as well as Kosterlitz-Thouless physics are tantalizing aims as well. The solid-state modeling goals of the optical-lattice physics community are also fundamentally connected to the system, as the canonical Mott-insulator/superfluid transition features superfluid shells isolated between insulating regions.

The central method to reach the sought-after bubble-geometry BEC or DFG is that of rf or microwave dressing of the bare trapping potentials provided by the Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL) “chip trap.” Radiofrequency dressing has been used conceptually through "rf-knife" evaporative cooling, but more recently through explicit construction of adiabatic potentials for interferometry, and shell-trap construction for both thermal and quantum gases. The proposed work is a window into a physical regime that is quite difficult to achieve terrestrially due to trap distortion; given the advantages of a microgravity environment, NASA CAL is uniquely positioned to realize the physics goals of this proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits:

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2015 
Task Progress: Progress during the first year of the grant revolved around conceptual studies of what possible experiments could be done once the CAL facility is flying.

Lundblad at Bates College and Aveline at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) focused on the details of how precisely a bubble-geometry Bose-Einstein condensate will be formed given the particular nature of the magnetic trap that will lie at the heart of CAL. In particular, they focused on trap symmetry, requisite trap homogeneity, and studied requirements for the actual apparatus. Aveline and Lundblad convened at Bates College for a workshop on this material in the summer of 2014.

Lannert at Smith College/UMass performed theoretical calculations of a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a shell/bubble potential, in particular characterizing how such gas shakes or quivers when excited. These calculations will inform our plans to do experiments related to this shaking or quivering on the CAL flight experiment. Since bubble-geometry Bose-Einstein condensates do not exist terrestrially this will be a novel experiment. Lannert and Lundblad convened at Bates College for a workshop on this material in August 2014.

In summary, considerable progress was made in the understanding of how one might be able to use the CAL apparatus to generate bubble/shell geometries for Bose-Einstein condensates. Further work this coming year will focus on specific implementation of various concept and calibration experiments using the CAL testbed, exploring theoretical modeling of the shell condensate at a more sophisticated level, and beginning construction on a CAL-like machine at Bates College, under the supervision of a postdoctoral fellow.

Bibliography: Description: (Last Updated: 04/28/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography
 
 None in FY 2015
Project Title:  Microgravity Dynamics of Bubble-Geometry Bose-Einstein Condensates Reduce
Images: icon  Fiscal Year: FY 2014 
Division: Physical Sciences 
Research Discipline/Element:
Physical Sciences: FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS--Fundamental physics 
Start Date: 04/01/2014  
End Date: 04/30/2019  
Task Last Updated: 07/18/2014 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Lundblad, Nathan  Ph.D. / Bates College 
Address:  Department of Physics and Astronomy 
44 Campus Ave 
Lewiston , ME 04240-6018 
Email: nlundbla@bates.edu 
Phone: 207-786-6321  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Bates College 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Aveline, David  Ph.D. Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
Lannert, Courtney  Ph.D. Smith College 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. JPL 1502172 
Responsible Center: NASA JPL 
Grant Monitor: Callas, John  
Center Contact:  
john.l.callas@jpl.nasa.gov 
Unique ID: 9879 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 2013 Fundamental Physics NNH13ZTT002N (Cold Atom Laboratory--CAL) 
Grant/Contract No.: JPL 1502172 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Program--Element: FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS--Fundamental physics 
Task Description: Notions of geometry, topology, and dimensionality have directed the historical development of quantum-gas physics. With a toolbox of forces used to confine, guide, and excite Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) or degenerate Fermi gases (DFG), physicists have used quantum gases to test fundamental ideas in quantum theory, statistical mechanics, and in recent years notions of strongly-correlated many-body physics from the condensed-matter world.

We propose a specific program to explore a trapping geometry for quantum gases that is both tantalizing theoretically and prohibitively difficult to attain terrestrially: a quantum gas in a bubble geometry, i.e. a trap formed by a spherical or ellipsoidal shell structure, confining a 2D quantum gas to the surface of an experimentally-controlled topologically-connected “bubble.” The physics of a quantum gas confined to such a surface has not been explored terrestrially due to the limitations of gravitational sag; interesting work has certainly been done with gases confined to the lower regions of bubble potentials, but the fully symmetric situation has yet to be explored. The low-energy excitations of such a system are unexplored, and notions of vortex creation and behavior as well as Kosterlitz-Thouless physics are tantalizing aims as well. The solid-state modeling goals of the optical-lattice physics community are also fundamentally connected to the system, as the canonical Mott-insulator/superfluid transition features superfluid shells isolated between insulating regions.

The central method to reach the sought-after bubble-geometry BEC or DFG is that of rf or microwave dressing of the bare trapping potentials provided by the CAL “chip trap.” Radiofrequency dressing has been used conceptually through "rf-knife" evaporative cooling, but more recently through explicit construction of adiabatic potentials for interferometry, and shell-trap construction for both thermal and quantum gases. The proposed work is a window into a physical regime that is quite difficult to achieve terrestrially due to trap distortion; given the advantages of a microgravity environment, NASA CAL is uniquely positioned to realize the physics goals of this proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: 0

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2014 
Task Progress: New project for FY2014.

Bibliography: Description: (Last Updated: 04/28/2022) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography
 
 None in FY 2014