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Project Title:  Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2017 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 01/24/2001  
End Date: 06/30/2017  
Task Last Updated: 09/30/2017 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Czeisler, Charles A. M.D., Ph.D. / Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Address:  Division of Sleep Medicine 
221 Longwood Ave., Ste. 438 
Boston , MA 02115-5804 
Email: caczeisler@rics.bwh.harvard.edu 
Phone: 617-732-4013  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Barger, Laura  Ph.D. Co-PI: Harvard Medical School 
Wright, Kenneth  Ph.D. University of Colorado 
Ronda, Joseph  M.S. Harvard Medical School 
Evans, Erin  Ph.D. NASA Ames Research Center 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: Laura K. Barger, Ph.D. is assigned as Co-Principal Investigator (1/2008 report).
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC9-119 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Williams, Thomas  
Center Contact: 281-483-8773 
thomas.j.will1@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 98-HEDS-02 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC9-119 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Sleep03:Sleep3: Does sleep loss continue on long duration spaceflight or is there adaptation? What is the nature of circadian desynchronization, extended wakefulness and work overload over long duration missions? (Closed, per IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS-12 (added 12/5/13 per PI/CoI information)

STS-133, STS-134, STS-135 (addt'l flight info per PI report 11/2011)

STS 129, 130, 131, 132 ; ISS increments 22-24 (addt'l flight info per PI 11/2009)

STS 126, STS 127, STS 128 ; ISS Increments 18-21 (addt'l flight info per PI office, 11/2008)

STS 122, STS 123, STS 124, STS 125; ISS Increment 17 (add'l flight info per PI office, 1/2008)

STS 116, STS 118, STS 120; ISS Increments 14, 15, 16 (add'l flight info provided 11/06)

STS 121, STS 115; ISS Increments 13-14

STS 104, STS 109, STS 111, STS 112, STS 113, STS 114

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors and Behavioral Performance (Ed., 5/8/17)

NOTE: New end date is 6/30/2017 per K. Ohnesorge/JSC (Ed., 10/31/16)

NOTE: New end date is 3/31/2017 per CoI L. Barger (Ed., 12/5/13)

NOTE: Expected to be extended to 4/30/2017 per CoI L. Barger (Ed., 8/31/13)

NOTE: End date changed to 4/30/2013 per CoPI Barger (Ed., 9/10/2012)

NOTE: End date is not firm per CoI/PI (Ed., 11/18/2011)

NOTE: End date is 7/31/2012 per PI/CoI (Ed., 10/27/11)

NOTE--end date should be around 4/30/2012 per JSC (11/08)

Task Description: BACKGROUND

An inadequate quantity or quality of sleep may impair an astronaut’s ability to maintain a high level of cognitive performance and vigilance while operating and monitoring sophisticated instrumentation during spaceflight. In order to understand sleep in space more completely, we conducted a large scale study of astronauts across multiple Space Shuttle (STS) and International Space Station (ISS) missions. Since 2000, crewmembers assigned to shuttle flights were briefed about the opportunity to participate in this experiment. ISS crews were briefed beginning in 2006. Participants wore a small light-weight ambulatory recording device [Actiwatch-L; manufactured by MiniMitter, then Respironics, then Philips, Bend, OR] for assessment of sleep-wakefulness activity via wrist actigraphy and light-exposure levels via wrist photometry during three Earth-based data-collection intervals and the spaceflight mission. Additionally, crewmembers were instructed to complete a sleep log within 15 minutes of awakening to record medication use (every day on STS and for approximately one-third of ISS mission days). Sleep was estimated using Actiware Software [Version 3.4] and circadian timing was estimated using Circadian Performance Simulation Software (CPSS).

We studied 21 ISS crewmembers (3,201 ISS inflight days) from 2006-2011 during missions lasting, on average, 155 ± 39 days. Preliminary results indicate that the mean (+ SD) nightly sleep duration, as estimated from actigraphy, was 6.1 + 0.7 hours on ISS missions, which was significantly shorter than during Earth-based collections 90 days prior to the mission and one-week postflight (p<0.01) [1]. To obtain even this limited amount of sleep, 75% of ISS crewmembers reported taking sleep-promoting medications inflight. Circadian misalignment occurred during 20% of mission days and was significantly associated with increased use of sleep medication, decreased sleep quality and shorter sleep durations [2].

One US astronaut and one Russian cosmonaut plan to take part in a one-year ISS mission. Given that the duration of this mission will be essentially twice as long as the nominal ISS missions, it was unknown how the mind and body, including sleep and the circadian system, would respond or adapt to that much time in space. We objectively evaluated sleep and estimated circadian alignment throughout the mission via the previously employed protocol. Findings from this long duration mission are crucial to inform future exploration class missions.

METHODOLOGY: Crewmembers wore a small light-weight ambulatory recording device [Spectrum; Philips, Bend, OR] for assessment of sleep-wakefulness activity and light-exposure during four Earth-based data-collection intervals and the spaceflight mission. Crewmembers also completed a sleep log within 15 minutes of awakening every day during ground collection intervals and for approximately one-third of ISS mission days. We evaluated sleep and circadian alignment via the analysis methodology previously used on the ISS.

RESULTS: On the one-year mission, there was considerable variation in sleep between the two crewmembers. On average,the mean nightly sleep duration of the two crewmembers on ISS12 was one hour more (7.1 ± 0.4 hours) than the mean nightly sleep duration on the 2004-2011 shorter ISS missions (6.1 ± 0.7 hours). Several factors may have affected nightly sleep duration including less shifting of the sleep-wake cycle and thus, reduction in circadian misaligned days from 20% on the 2004-2011 missions to 3% on the one-year mission. During spaceflight, objective sleep efficiency was significantly correlated with reported sleep quality and alertness.

CONCLUSION: In order to be able to make generalizations about sleep on longer duration missions, sleep should continue to be evaluated in additional crewmembers on one-year missions. Understanding sleep and circadian rhythms on long duration missions is crucial to inform future exploration class missions.

REFERENCES

[1] Barger LK, Flynn-Evans EE, Kubey A, Walsh L, Ronda JM, Wang W, Wright KP Jr, Czeisler CA. "Prevalence of sleep deficiency and use of hypnotic drugs in astronauts before, during, and after spaceflight: an observational study." Lancet Neurol. 2014 Sep;13(9):904-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(14)70122-X

[2] Barger LK, Sullivan JP, Ronda JM, Czeisler CA. "Sleep-wake actigraphy and light exposure on a one-year International Space Station mission." 2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 13-15, 2015.

See also http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/294.html

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: A better understanding of sleep deficiency and insomnia is relevant to the millions of people on Earth who suffer nightly from insomnia. The advancement of state of the art technology for monitoring, diagnosing, and assessing treatment effectiveness is vital to the continued treatment of insomnia on Earth. This work has the potential to greatly benefit the health, productivity and safety of groups with a high prevalence of insomnia, such as shift workers and the elderly.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2017 
Task Progress: An inadequate quantity or quality of sleep may impair an astronaut’s ability to maintain a high level of cognitive performance and vigilance while operating and monitoring sophisticated instrumentation during spaceflight. In order to understand sleep in space more completely, we conducted a large scale study of astronauts across multiple International Space Station (ISS) missions. Participants wore a small light-weight ambulatory recording device [Actiwatch-L; manufactured by MiniMitter, then Respironics, then Philips, Bend, OR] for assessment of sleep-wakefulness activity via wrist actigraphy and light-exposure levels via wrist photometry during three Earth-based data-collection intervals and the spaceflight mission. Additionally, crewmembers were instructed to complete a sleep log within 15 minutes of awakening to record medication use (every day on STS and for approximately one-third of ISS mission days). Sleep was estimated using Actiware Software [Version 3.4].

We studied 21 ISS crewmembers (3,201 ISS inflight days) from 2006-2011 during missions lasting, on average, 155 ± 39 days. Preliminary results indicate that the mean (+ SD) nightly sleep duration, as estimated from actigraphy, was 6.1 + 0.7 hours on ISS missions, which was significantly shorter than during Earth-based collections 90 days prior to the mission and one-week postflight (p<0.01). To obtain even this limited amount of sleep, 75% of ISS crewmembers reported taking sleep-promoting medications inflight. Circadian misalignment, as estimated by Circadian Performance Simulation Software, occurred during 20% of mission days and was significantly associated with increased use of sleep-promoting medication, all medication use, decreased sleep quality and shorter sleep durations.

Using the same procedures we studied sleep and circadian alignment of two crewmembers on a one-year ISS mission. These data represent the only objective estimates of sleep of crewmembers for the entire duration of a one-year ISS mission. There was considerable variation in sleep between the two crewmembers. On average, the mean nightly sleep duration of the two crewmembers on ISS12 was one hour more than the mean nightly sleep duration on the 2004-2011 shorter ISS missions. Several factors may have affected nightly sleep duration including less shifting of the sleep-wake cycle and thus, a marked reduction in circadian misaligned days from the 2004-2011 missions to the one-year mission. In flight, objective sleep efficiency was significantly correlated with subjective reports of sleep quality and alertness.

It is difficult to make any definitive conclusions due to the very limited number of crewmembers assigned to the one-year mission. We did find that sleep duration was, on average, increased in the one-year mission as compared to the shorter ISS missions. This can at least be partially attributed to the substantial reduction in circadian misalignment on the one-year mission, likely due to fewer shifts in the crewmembers’ sleep-wake cycle. Although workload wasn’t specifically measured in this study, conversations with schedulers noted reduced workloads for one-year mission subjects as compared to shorter duration ISS subjects. The relationship between workload and sleep duration during spaceflight needs further study.

In order to be able to make generalizations about sleep on longer duration missions, sleep should continue to be evaluated in additional crewmembers on one-year missions. Understanding sleep and circadian rhythms on long duration missions is crucial to inform future exploration class missions.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Barger LK, Sullivan JP, Ronda JM, Czeisler CA. "Sleep-wake actigraphy and light exposure on a one-year international space station mission." 2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016.

2016 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 8-11, 2016. , Feb-2016

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Barger LK, Sullivan JP, Ronda JM, Czeisler, CA. "Sleep-wake actigraphy and light exposure on a one-year international space station mission." Presented at 2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017.

2017 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 23-26, 2017. , Jan-2017

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Brainard GC, Barger LK, Soler RR, Hanifin JP. "The development of lighting countermeasures for sleep disruption and circadian misalignment during spaceflight." Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2016 Nov;22(6):535-44. https://doi.org/10.1097/MCP.0000000000000329 ; PubMed PMID: 27607152 , Nov-2016
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Gottlieb DJ, Ellenbogen JM, Bianchi MT, Czeisler CA. "Sleep deficiency and motor vehicle crash risk in the general population: A prospective cohort study." BMC Med. 2018 Mar 20;16(1):44. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-018-1025-7 ; PubMed PMID: 29554902; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5859531 , Mar-2018
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals St Hilaire MA, Kristal BS, Rahman SA, Sullivan JP, Quackenbush J, Duffy JF, Barger LK, Gooley JJ, Czeisler CA, Lockley SW. "Using a single daytime performance test to identify most individuals at high-risk for performance impairment during extended wake." Sci Rep. 2019 Nov 13;9(1):16681. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-52930-y ; PMID: 31723161; PMCID: PMC6853981 , Nov-2019
Project Title:  Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2016 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 01/24/2001  
End Date: 06/30/2017  
Task Last Updated: 11/20/2015 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Czeisler, Charles A. M.D., Ph.D. / Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Address:  Division of Sleep Medicine 
221 Longwood Ave., Ste. 438 
Boston , MA 02115-5804 
Email: caczeisler@rics.bwh.harvard.edu 
Phone: 617-732-4013  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Barger, Laura  Ph.D. Co-PI: Harvard Medical School 
Wright, Kenneth  Ph.D. University of Colorado 
Ronda, Joseph  M.S. Harvard Medical School 
Evans, Erin  Ph.D. NASA Ames Research Center 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: Laura K. Barger, Ph.D. is assigned as Co-Principal Investigator (1/2008 report).
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC9-119 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 98-HEDS-02 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC9-119 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Sleep03:Sleep3: Does sleep loss continue on long duration spaceflight or is there adaptation? What is the nature of circadian desynchronization, extended wakefulness and work overload over long duration missions? (Closed, per IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS-12 (added 12/5/13 per PI/CoI information)

STS-133, STS-134, STS-135 (addt'l flight info per PI report 11/2011)

STS 129, 130, 131, 132 ; ISS increments 22-24 (addt'l flight info per PI 11/2009)

STS 126, STS 127, STS 128 ; ISS Increments 18-21 (addt'l flight info per PI office, 11/2008)

STS 122, STS 123, STS 124, STS 125; ISS Increment 17 (add'l flight info per PI office, 1/2008)

STS 116, STS 118, STS 120; ISS Increments 14, 15, 16 (add'l flight info provided 11/06)

STS 121, STS 115; ISS Increments 13-14

STS 104, STS 109, STS 111, STS 112, STS 113, STS 114

NOTE: New end date is 6/30/2017 per K. Ohnesorge/JSC (Ed., 10/31/16)

NOTE: New end date is 3/31/2017 per CoI L. Barger (Ed., 12/5/13)

NOTE: Expected to be extended to 4/30/2017 per CoI L. Barger (Ed., 8/31/13)

NOTE: End date changed to 4/30/2013 per CoPI Barger (Ed., 9/10/2012)

NOTE: End date is not firm per CoI/PI (Ed., 11/18/2011)

NOTE: End date is 7/31/2012 per PI/CoI (Ed., 10/27/11)

NOTE--end date should be around 4/30/2012 per JSC (11/08)

Task Description: BACKGROUND

An inadequate quantity or quality of sleep may impair an astronaut’s ability to maintain a high level of cognitive performance and vigilance while operating and monitoring sophisticated instrumentation during spaceflight. In order to understand sleep in space more completely, we conducted a large scale study of astronauts across multiple Space Shuttle (STS) and International Space Station (ISS) missions. Since 2000, crewmembers assigned to shuttle flights were briefed about the opportunity to participate in this experiment. ISS crews were briefed beginning in 2006. Participants wore a small light-weight ambulatory recording device [Actiwatch-L; manufactured by MiniMitter, then Respironics, then Philips, Bend, OR] for assessment of sleep-wakefulness activity via wrist actigraphy and light-exposure levels via wrist photometry during three Earth-based data-collection intervals and the spaceflight mission. Additionally, crewmembers were instructed to complete a sleep log within 15 minutes of awakening to record medication use (every day on STS and for approximately one-third of ISS mission days). Sleep was estimated using Actiware Software [Version 3.4] and circadian timing was estimated using Circadian Performance Simulation Software (CPSS).

We studied 21 ISS crewmembers (3,201 ISS inflight days) from 2006-2011 during missions lasting, on average, 155 ± 39 days. Preliminary results indicate that the mean (+ SD) nightly sleep duration, as estimated from actigraphy, was 6.1 + 0.7 hours on ISS missions, which was significantly shorter than during Earth-based collections 90 days prior to the mission and one-week postflight (p<0.01) [1]. To obtain even this limited amount of sleep, 75% of ISS crewmembers reported taking sleep-promoting medications inflight. Circadian misalignment occurred during 20% of mission days and was significantly associated with increased use of sleep medication, decreased sleep quality and shorter sleep durations [2].

One US astronaut and one Russian cosmonaut plan to take part in a one-year ISS mission. Given that the duration of this mission will be essentially twice as long as the nominal ISS missions, it is unknown how the mind and body, including sleep and the circadian system, will respond or adapt to that much time in space. We plan to estimate sleep and circadian alignment throughout the mission via the previously employed protocol. Findings from this long duration mission are crucial to inform future exploration class missions.

METHODOLOGY: Crewmembers wear a small light-weight ambulatory recording device [Spectrum; Philips, Bend, OR] for assessment of sleep-wakefulness activity and light-exposure during four Earth-based data-collection intervals and the spaceflight mission. Crewmembers also complete a sleep log within 15 minutes of awakening every day during ground collection intervals and for approximately one-third of ISS mission days. We plan to estimate sleep and circadian alignment via the analysis methodology previously used on the ISS.

RESULTS: Two weeks of baseline data were collected at approximately 9 months and 4.5 months prior to launch. Inflight, we have recorded 281 days of actigraphy and collected 117 sleep logs.

CONCLUSION: This research project will inform Behavioral Health and Performance risk-related questions such as “Does sleep loss continue on long duration spaceflight or is there adaptation?” and “What is the nature of circadian desynchronization over long duration missions?” The findings from this long duration mission are crucial to inform future long-duration exploration class missions.

REFERENCES

[1] Barger LK, Flynn-Evans EE, Kubey A, Walsh L, Ronda JM, Wang W, Wright KP Jr, Czeisler CA. "Prevalence of sleep deficiency and use of hypnotic drugs in astronauts before, during, and after spaceflight: an observational study." Lancet Neurol. 2014 Sep;13(9):904-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(14)70122-X

[2] Barger LK, Sullivan JP, Ronda JM, Czeisler CA. "Sleep-wake actigraphy and light exposure on a one-year International Space Station mission." 2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 13-15, 2015.

See also http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/294.html

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: An inadequate quantity or quality of sleep may impair an astronaut’s ability to maintain a high level of cognitive performance and vigilance while operating and monitoring sophisticated instrumentation during spaceflight. In order to understand sleep in space more completely, we conducted a large scale study of astronauts across multiple Space Shuttle (STS) and International Space Station (ISS) missions. Since 2000, crewmembers assigned to shuttle flights were briefed about the opportunity to participate in this experiment. ISS crews were briefed beginning in 2006. Participants wore a small light-weight ambulatory recording device [Actiwatch-L; manufactured by MiniMitter, then Respironics, then Philips, Bend, OR] for assessment of sleep-wakefulness activity via wrist actigraphy and light-exposure levels via wrist photometry during three Earth-based data-collection intervals and the spaceflight mission. Additionally, crewmembers were instructed to complete a sleep log within 15 minutes of awakening to record medication use (every day on STS and for approximately one-third of ISS mission days). Sleep was estimated using Actiware Software [Version 3.4].

We studied 21 ISS crewmembers (3,201 ISS inflight days) from 2006-2011 during missions lasting, on average, 155 ± 39 days. Preliminary results indicate that the mean (+ SD) nightly sleep duration, as estimated from actigraphy, was 6.1 + 0.7 hours on ISS missions, which was significantly shorter than during Earth-based collections 90 days prior to the mission and one-week postflight (p<0.01). To obtain even this limited amount of sleep, 75% of ISS crewmembers reported taking sleep-promoting medications inflight. Circadian misalignment, as measured by Circadian Performance Simulation Software (CPSS), occurred during 20% of mission days and was significantly associated with increased use of sleep medication, decreased sleep quality, and shorter sleep durations.

One US astronaut and one Russian cosmonaut plan to take part in a one-year ISS mission. Given that the duration of this mission will be essentially twice as long as the nominal ISS missions, it is unknown how the mind and body, including sleep and the circadian system, will respond or adapt to that much time in space. We plan to estimate sleep and circadian alignment throughout the mission via the previously employed protocol. Findings from this long duration mission are crucial to inform future exploration class missions.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2016 
Task Progress: Two pre-flight data collection intervals have been completed for two ISS12 crewmembers. Inflight actigraphy and sleep log data collection are ongoing.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Barger LK, Sullivan JP, Ronda JM, Czeisler CA. "Sleep-wake actigraphy and light exposure on a one-year International Space Station mission." 2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 13-15, 2015.

2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 13-15, 2015. , Jan-2015

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Flynn-Evans EE, Barger LK, Kubey AA, Sullivan JP, Czeisler CA. "Circadian misalignment affects sleep and medication use before and during spaceflight." npj Microgravity. 2016 Jan 7;2:15019. https://doi.org/10.1038/npjmgrav.2015.19 , Jan-2016
Project Title:  Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2015 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 01/24/2001  
End Date: 03/31/2017  
Task Last Updated: 09/28/2015 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Czeisler, Charles A. M.D., Ph.D. / Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Address:  Division of Sleep Medicine 
221 Longwood Ave., Ste. 438 
Boston , MA 02115-5804 
Email: caczeisler@rics.bwh.harvard.edu 
Phone: 617-732-4013  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Barger, Laura  Ph.D. Co-PI: Harvard Medical School 
Wright, Kenneth  Ph.D. University of Colorado 
Ronda, Joseph  M.S. Harvard Medical School 
Evans, Erin  Ph.D. NASA  
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: Laura K. Barger, Ph.D. is assigned as Co-Principal Investigator (1/2008 report).
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC9-119 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 98-HEDS-02 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC9-119 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Sleep03:Sleep3: Does sleep loss continue on long duration spaceflight or is there adaptation? What is the nature of circadian desynchronization, extended wakefulness and work overload over long duration missions? (Closed, per IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS-12 (added 12/5/13 per PI/CoI information)

STS-133, STS-134, STS-135 (addt'l flight info per PI report 11/2011)

STS 129, 130, 131, 132 ; ISS increments 22-24 (addt'l flight info per PI 11/2009)

STS 126, STS 127, STS 128 ; ISS Increments 18-21 (addt'l flight info per PI office, 11/2008)

STS 122, STS 123, STS 124, STS 125; ISS Increment 17 (add'l flight info per PI office, 1/2008)

STS 116, STS 118, STS 120; ISS Increments 14, 15, 16 (add'l flight info provided 11/06)

STS 121, STS 115; ISS Increments 13-14

STS 104, STS 109, STS 111, STS 112, STS 113, STS 114

NOTE: New end date is 3/31/2017 per CoI L. Barger (Ed., 12/5/13)

NOTE: Expected to be extended to 4/30/2017 per CoI L. Barger (Ed., 8/31/13)

NOTE: End date changed to 4/30/2013 per CoPI Barger (Ed., 9/10/2012)

NOTE: End date is not firm per CoI/PI (Ed., 11/18/2011)

NOTE: End date is 7/31/2012 per PI/CoI (Ed., 10/27/11)

NOTE--end date should be around 4/30/2012 per JSC (11/08)

Task Description: Participants wear a small light-weight activity and light recording device for the entire duration of their mission. They also completed a sleep log each day on Shuttle flights and for three 1-week periods during nominal International Space Station (ISS) missions. On the ISS12 mission, sleep logs are completed about every three weeks. The sleep-wake activity and light exposure patterns obtained in-flight on Shuttle and nominal ISS missions was compared with baseline data collected for two weeks at approximately L-90 and from L-11 through L-0. Recovery from spaceflight was also assessed from R+0 through R+7. Baseline data for the ISS12 mission was collected approximately one year and six months prior to flight. These data should help us better understand the effects of spaceflight on sleep as well as aid in the development of effective countermeasures for both short and long-duration spaceflight.

See also http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/294.html

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: An inadequate quantity or quality of sleep may impair an astronaut’s ability to maintain a high level of cognitive performance and vigilance while operating and monitoring sophisticated instrumentation during spaceflight. In order to understand sleep in space more completely, we conducted a large scale study of astronauts across multiple Space Shuttle (STS) and International Space Station (ISS) missions. Since 2000, crewmembers assigned to shuttle flights were briefed about the opportunity to participate in this experiment. ISS crews were briefed beginning in 2006. Participants wore a small light-weight ambulatory recording device [Actiwatch-L; manufactured by MiniMitter, then Respironics, then Philips, Bend, OR] for assessment of sleep-wakefulness activity via wrist actigraphy and light-exposure levels via wrist photometry during three Earth-based data-collection intervals and the spaceflight mission. Additionally, crewmembers were instructed to complete a sleep log within 15 minutes of awakening to record medication use (every day on STS and for approximately one-third of ISS mission days). Sleep was estimated using Actiware Software [Version 3.4].

We studied 21 ISS crewmembers (3,201 ISS inflight days) from 2006-2011 during missions lasting, on average, 155 ± 39 days. Preliminary results indicate that the mean (+ SD) nightly sleep duration, as estimated from actigraphy, was 6.1 + 0.7 hours on ISS missions, which was significantly shorter than during Earth-based collections 90 days prior to the mission and one-week postflight (p<0.01). To obtain even this limited amount of sleep, 75% of ISS crewmembers reported taking sleep-promoting medications inflight. Circadian misalignment, as measured by CPSS, occurred during 20% of mission days and was significantly associated with increased use of sleep medication, decreased sleep quality, and shorter sleep durations. One US astronaut and one Russian cosmonaut plan to take part in a one-year ISS mission. Given that the duration of this mission will be essentially twice as long as the nominal ISS missions, it is unknown how the mind and body, including sleep and the circadian system, will respond or adapt to that much time in space. We plan to estimate sleep and circadian alignment throughout the mission via the previously employed protocol. Findings from this long duration mission are crucial to inform future exploration class missions.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2015 
Task Progress: A manuscript describing the results of the initial phases of this study (sleep of 80 shuttle crewmembers and 21 International Space Station crewmembers) was published in the Lancet Neurology. We began the next phase of the study, which is to study sleep on a one-year ISS mission (ISS12). Data collection is ongoing.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Barger LK, Flynn-Evans EE, Kubey A, Walsh L, Ronda JM, Wang W, Wright KP Jr, Czeisler CA. "Prevalence of sleep deficiency and use of hypnotic drugs in astronauts before, during, and after spaceflight: an observational study." Lancet Neurol. 2014 Sep;13(9):904-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(14)70122-X ; PubMed PMID: 25127232; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4188436 , Sep-2014
Project Title:  Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2014 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 01/24/2001  
End Date: 03/31/2017  
Task Last Updated: 12/04/2013 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Czeisler, Charles A. M.D., Ph.D. / Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Address:  Division of Sleep Medicine 
221 Longwood Ave., Ste. 438 
Boston , MA 02115-5804 
Email: caczeisler@rics.bwh.harvard.edu 
Phone: 617-732-4013  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Barger, Laura  Ph.D. Co-PI: Harvard Medical School 
Wright, Kenneth  Ph.D. University of Colorado 
Ronda, Joseph  M.S. Harvard Medical School 
Evans, Erin  Ph.D. NASA Ames Research Center 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: Laura K. Barger, Ph.D. is assigned as Co-Principal Investigator (1/2008 report).
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC9-119 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 98-HEDS-02 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC9-119 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Sleep03:Sleep3: Does sleep loss continue on long duration spaceflight or is there adaptation? What is the nature of circadian desynchronization, extended wakefulness and work overload over long duration missions? (Closed, per IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS-12 (added 12/5/13 per PI/CoI information)

STS-133, STS-134, STS-135 (addt'l flight info per PI report 11/2011)

STS 129, 130, 131, 132 ; ISS increments 22-24 (addt'l flight info per PI 11/2009)

STS 126, STS 127, STS 128 ; ISS Increments 18-21 (addt'l flight info per PI office, 11/2008)

STS 122, STS 123, STS 124, STS 125; ISS Increment 17 (add'l flight info per PI office, 1/2008)

STS 116, STS 118, STS 120; ISS Increments 14, 15, 16 (add'l flight info provided 11/06)

STS 121, STS 115; ISS Increments 13-14

STS 104, STS 109, STS 111, STS 112, STS 113, STS 114 NOTE: New end date is 3/31/2017 per CoI L. Barger (Ed., 12/5/13)

NOTE: Expected to be extended to 4/30/2017 per CoI L. Barger (Ed., 8/31/13)

NOTE: End date changed to 4/30/2013 per CoPI Barger (Ed., 9/10/2012)

NOTE: End date is not firm per CoI/PI (Ed., 11/18/2011)

NOTE: End date is 7/31/2012 per PI/CoI (Ed., 10/27/11)

NOTE--end date should be around 4/30/2012 per JSC (11/08)

Task Description: Subjects will wear a small light-weight activity and light recording device for the entire duration of their mission. They will complete a sleep log each day on Shuttle flights and for three 1-week periods during an ISS mission. The sleep-wake activity and light exposure patterns obtained in-flight will be compared with baseline data collected for two weeks at L-90 and from L-11 through L-0. Recovery from space flight will also be assessed from R+0 through R+7. These data should help us better understand the effects of space flight on sleep as well as aid in the development of effective countermeasures for both short and long-duration space flight.

See also http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/294.html

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The success and effectiveness of manned space flight depends on the ability of crew members to maintain a high level of cognitive performance and vigilance while operating and monitoring sophisticated instrumentation. Astronauts, however, commonly experience sleep disruption and may experience misalignment of circadian phase during space flight. Both of these conditions are associated with impairment of alertness and cognitive performance. A survey of 58 crew members from 9 shuttle missions revealed that most suffered from sleep disruption and were unable to sleep more than six hours per day of flight as compared to 7.9 hours per day on the ground. Ground-based studies have revealed that chronic exposure to such partial sleep loss results in progressive decrements in neurobehavioral performance during waking hours. In fact, nineteen percent of crew members on single shift missions and 50 percent of the crew members in dual shift operations have resorted to sleeping pill usage (principally benzodiazepines) during their missions, which represents more than 40% of all medication used by shuttle crew. Although benzodiazepines are effective hypnotics, their adverse next-day side effects include sedation, performance decrements, amnesia, and distortions in the sleep EEG.

Relatively little is known of the severity or cause of space flight-induced insomnia in short duration mission, and less is know about the effect of long-duration space flight on sleep and circadian rhythm organization. This experiment will use state-of-the-art ambulatory technology to monitor sleep-wake activity patterns and light exposure in crew members aboard Space Shuttle and ISS missions.

The proposed research could have significant implications for both sleep disorders medicine and space life sciences. The results of the proposed research could lead to the development of a new treatment regimen for sleep disturbances of various etiologies during space flight, which could enable crew members to avoid the decrements in alertness and performance associated with sleep deprivation. This work could therefore have a profound impact on the health, productivity and safety not only of astronauts during space flight, but also of other groups with a high prevalence of insomnia, such as shift workers and older people.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2014 
Task Progress: We objectively assessed, via wrist actigraphy and daily logs, the sleep-wake timing of 64 astronauts on 80 Space Shuttle missions, encompassing 26 Space Transportation System flights (1,066 inflight days), and 21 astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) (3,201 inflight days). Each astronaut also participated in three Earth-based data-collection intervals (4,013 ground-based days).

The final report describing the results of the Shuttle astronauts and the first 21 ISS astronauts was submitted to NASA. A manuscript (Barger, LK, Flynn-Evans, EE, Kubey, A, Walsh, L, Ronda, JM, Wang, W, Wright, KP, Czeisler, CA, High prevalence of sleep deficiency and hypnotic use among astronauts before and during spaceflight) was submitted to a high impact medical journal. A second manuscript is in preparation (Flynn-Evans, EE, Barger, K, Kubey, A, Sullivan, J, Wright, KP, Czeisler, CA. Sleep and circadian rhythms among 21 astronauts during long-duration missions on the International Space Station).

The study has been assigned to the ISS-12 mission, scheduled to launch in March 2015. One US astronaut and one Russian cosmonaut plan to take part in this one-year ISS mission. Given that the duration of this mission will be essentially twice as long as the nominal ISS missions, it is unknown how the mind and body, including sleep and the circadian system, will respond or adapt to that much time in space. We plan to estimate sleep and circadian alignment throughout the mission via the previously employed protocol. Findings from this long duration mission are crucial to inform future exploration class missions.

We have prepared the timelines and budgets for the new mission and conducted the informed consent briefing for the US astronaut. We are also working on other required NASA documentation for the new mission, including the experiment document and payload summary.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2014
Project Title:  Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2012 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 01/24/2001  
End Date: 04/30/2017  
Task Last Updated: 10/08/2012 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Czeisler, Charles A. M.D., Ph.D. / Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Address:  Division of Sleep Medicine 
221 Longwood Ave., Ste. 438 
Boston , MA 02115-5804 
Email: caczeisler@rics.bwh.harvard.edu 
Phone: 617-732-4013  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Barger, Laura  Co-PI: Harvard Medical School 
Wright, Kenneth  Ph.D. University of Colorado 
Ronda, Joseph  M.S. Harvard Medical School 
Evans, Erin  Ph.D. Brigham and Women's Hospital 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: Laura K. Barger, Ph.D. is assigned as Co-Principal Investigator (1/2008 report).
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC9-119 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 98-HEDS-02 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC9-119 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Sleep03:Sleep3: Does sleep loss continue on long duration spaceflight or is there adaptation? What is the nature of circadian desynchronization, extended wakefulness and work overload over long duration missions? (Closed, per IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: STS-133, STS-134, STS-135 (addt'l flight info per PI report 11/2011)

STS 129, 130, 131, 132 ; ISS increments 22-24 (addt'l flight info per PI 11/2009)

STS 126, STS 127, STS 128 ; ISS Increments 18-21 (addt'l flight info per PI office, 11/2008)

STS 122, STS 123, STS 124, STS 125; ISS Increment 17 (add'l flight info per PI office, 1/2008)

STS 116, STS 118, STS 120; ISS Increments 14, 15, 16 (add'l flight info provided 11/06)

STS 121, STS 115; ISS Increments 13-14

STS 104, STS 109, STS 111, STS 112, STS 113, STS 114

NOTE: Expected to be extended to 4/30/2017 per CoI L. Barger (Ed., 8/31/13)

NOTE: End date changed to 4/30/2013 per CoPI Barger (Ed., 9/10/2012)

NOTE: End date is not firm per CoI/PI (Ed., 11/18/2011)

NOTE: End date is 7/31/2012 per PI/CoI (Ed., 10/27/11)

NOTE--end date should be around 4/30/2012 per JSC (11/08)

Task Description: Subjects will wear a small light-weight activity and light recording device for the entire duration of their mission. They will complete a sleep log each day on Shuttle flights and for three 1-week periods during an ISS mission. The sleep-wake activity and light exposure patterns obtained in-flight will be compared with baseline data collected for two weeks at L-90 and from L-11 through L-0. Recovery from space flight will also be assessed from R+0 through R+7. These data should help us better understand the effects of space flight on sleep as well as aid in the development of effective countermeasures for both short and long-duration space flight.

See also http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/294.html

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The success and effectiveness of manned space flight depends on the ability of crew members to maintain a high level of cognitive performance and vigilance while operating and monitoring sophisticated instrumentation. Astronauts, however, commonly experience sleep disruption and may experience misalignment of circadian phase during space flight. Both of these conditions are associated with impairment of alertness and cognitive performance. A survey of 58 crew members from 9 shuttle missions revealed that most suffered from sleep disruption and were unable to sleep more than six hours per day of flight as compared to 7.9 hours per day on the ground. Ground-based studies have revealed that chronic exposure to such partial sleep loss results in progressive decrements in neurobehavioral performance during waking hours. In fact, nineteen percent of crew members on single shift missions and 50 percent of the crew members in dual shift operations have resorted to sleeping pill usage (principally benzodiazepines) during their missions, which represents more than 40% of all medication used by shuttle crew. Although benzodiazepines are effective hypnotics, their adverse next-day side effects include sedation, performance decrements, amnesia, and distortions in the sleep EEG.

Relatively little is known of the severity or cause of space flight-induced insomnia in short duration mission, and less is know about the effect of long-duration space flight on sleep and circadian rhythm organization. This experiment will use state-of-the-art ambulatory technology to monitor sleep-wake activity patterns and light exposure in crew members aboard Space Shuttle and ISS missions.

The proposed research could have significant implications for both sleep disorders medicine and space life sciences. The results of the proposed research could lead to the development of a new treatment regimen for sleep disturbances of various etiologies during space flight, which could enable crew members to avoid the decrements in alertness and performance associated with sleep deprivation. This work could therefore have a profound impact on the health, productivity and safety not only of astronauts during space flight, but also of other groups with a high prevalence of insomnia, such as shift workers and older people.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2012 
Task Progress: REPORTING PROVIDED OCTOBER 2012:

A critical OMB milestone was met on August 31st, 2012 when a final report was submitted to the Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Element on the Sleep-Wake Actigraphy Study – Risk Characterization and Monitoring Tools for Spaceflight Environments of Shuttle and ISS, by BHP Principal Investigators Drs. Laura Barger and Charles Czeisler of Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital. The study informs multiple gaps within the BHP risk of Performance Errors due to Fatigue Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, Extended Wakefulness, and Work Overload and the risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders and in other Elements in the Human Research Program (e.g., Pharmacology). This investigation is the largest study of sleep in spaceflight for both short and long duration missions. This research task directly addresses NASA HRP spaceflight-related research gaps by providing objective actigraphy data collected from 21 ISS crewmembers (3,201 ISS in-flight days) and 60 astronauts on 80 Shuttle missions, encompassing 26 STS flights (1,066 STS in-flight days). Results indicated that astronauts obtain insufficient sleep during both STS and ISS missions. Furthermore, findings suggest that astronauts face significant chronic sleep debt, even 3 months prior to launch, and that sleep restriction is sustained throughout spaceflight even with the use of sleep promoting medications. Prior ground-based research indicates that chronic sleep loss, similar to that observed in the current study in-flight, produces performance decrements. These findings highlight the need for development of effective countermeasures to promote sleep in long duration missions and thereby enhance wakefulness in-flight. The results of this study have informed both the research and operations communities and generated interest in transitioning these procedures from research to operations.

REPORTING PROVIDED NOVEMBER 2011:

INTRODUCTION: The success of current and future human spaceflight demands that astronauts maintain peak levels of alertness and performance throughout mission operations; however, astronauts are often required to perform while under acute and chronic sleep deprivation during the biological night. Insufficient sleep is associated with cognitive impairment and decreased vigilance, which are critical to the success of mission operations. Findings from prior research studies show that sleep tends to be shorter during space flight than on the ground and that use of sleep medications during spaceflight is common. Several factors, such as circadian misalignment, noise, temperature and urine voids have been identified as possible causes that disrupt sleep in space.

METHODS: The present analysis includes data for 64 astronauts (12F) from 76 space Shuttle subject missions. Data collection was initiated at four time points, approximately 90 days prior to launch (L-90), during the 11 days prior to launch (L-11), throughout a spaceflight mission (flight) and for seven days immediately following return from space (R+7). Objective sleep outcomes were assessed using wrist-borne actigraphy, which continuously collects accelerometer data averaged over 1 or 2 minute intervals of time (Actiwatch-L; Minimitter-Respironics, Bend, OR). Subjective sleep duration, number and duration of awakenings, environmental causes of sleep disruption, caffeine and medication use were assessed with daily sleep diaries.

SPECIFIC AIMS: The specific aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that objective sleep duration would be shorter during space flight than on Earth.

RESULTS: Findings from the present study confirm that actigraphy-derived sleep duration is significantly shorter in space (mean 5.98 ± 0.08 h) compared to a baseline data collection three months prior to flight (mean 6.27 ± 0.08 h). Repeated measures ANOVA confirmed that sleep during the L-90 baseline is significantly different than during all other data collection periods.

DISCUSSION: The findings from this study are consistent with prior reports that found the average sleep duration in space to be approximately six hours. Results from data collection on Earth suggest that astronauts face a significant cumulative sleep debt, as the mean sleep duration for all conditions never exceeded 7 hours per night. These findings suggest that astronauts face a significant chronic sleep debt, even 90 days prior to embarking on a short-duration mission. This sleep restriction is sustained throughout mission operations. It is possible that the L-90 data collection point does not represent a true baseline due to mission preparation. Future research should involve detailed assessments on astronaut sleep need in order to determine the magnitude of the deficit faced by astronauts prior to and during spaceflight.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Barger LK, Flynn-Evans EE, Wright KP Jr, Kubey A, Czeisler CA. "Sleep and the Use of Sleep-Promoting Medications on Multiple Space Shuttle and International Space Station Missions." 18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011.

18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011. , Apr-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Flynn-Evans EE, Kubey A, Wright Jr. KP, Czeisler CA, Barger LK. "Sleep duration among 64 astronauts on short duration missions. " 2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14-16, 2012.

2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14-16, 2012. , Feb-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Flynn-Evans EE, Barger LK, Kubey A, Wright KP, Czeisler CA. "Sleep and circadian rhythms in crewmembers during space shuttle missions." 2012 Meeting of the Society for Research on Biological Rhythms, Destin, Florida, May 19-23, 2012.

2012 Meeting of the Society for Research on Biological Rhythms, Destin, Florida, May 19-23, 2012. Conference Program, Abstract P224, p. 239. http://www.conferences.uiuc.edu/SRBR/FINAL%20SRBR%202012%20Program%20and%20Abstracts.pdf , May-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Flynn-Evans EE, Kubey A, Wang W, Wright KP, Czeisler CA, Barger LK. "Sleep duration among 64 astronauts on space shuttle missions." 26th Annual Meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies, Boston, MA, June 9-13, 2012.

Sleep. 2012;35 Suppl:A116. http://www.journalsleep.org/Resources/Documents/2012abstractsupplement.pdf , Jun-2012

Project Title:  Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2011 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 01/24/2001  
End Date: 07/31/2012  
Task Last Updated: 11/19/2010 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Czeisler, Charles A. M.D., Ph.D. / Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Address:  Division of Sleep Medicine 
221 Longwood Ave., Ste. 438 
Boston , MA 02115-5804 
Email: caczeisler@rics.bwh.harvard.edu 
Phone: 617-732-4013  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Barger, Laura  Co-PI: Harvard Medical School 
Wright, Kenneth  Ph.D. University of Colorado 
Ronda, Joseph  M.S. Harvard Medical School 
Evans, Erin  Ph.D. Brigham and Women's Hospital 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: Laura K. Barger, Ph.D. is assigned as Co-Principal Investigator (1/2008 report).
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC9-119 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Leveton, Lauren  
Center Contact:  
lauren.b.leveton@nasa5.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 98-HEDS-02 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC9-119 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Sleep03:Sleep3: Does sleep loss continue on long duration spaceflight or is there adaptation? What is the nature of circadian desynchronization, extended wakefulness and work overload over long duration missions? (Closed, per IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: STS 129, 130, 131, 132 ; ISS increments 22-24 (addt'l flight info per PI 11/2009)

STS 126, STS 127, STS 128 ; ISS Increments 18-21 (addt'l flight info per PI office, 11/2008)

STS 122, STS 123, STS 124, STS 125; ISS Increment 17 (add'l flight info per PI office, 1/2008)

STS 116, STS 118, STS 120; ISS Increments 14, 15, 16 (add'l flight info provided 11/06)

STS 121, STS 115; ISS Increments 13-14

STS 104, STS 109, STS 111, STS 112, STS 113, STS 114

NOTE: End date is 7/31/2012 per PI/CoI (Ed., 10/27/11)

NOTE--end date should be around 4/30/2012 per JSC (11/08)

Task Description: Subjects will wear a small light-weight activity and light recording device for the entire duration of their mission. They will complete a sleep log each day on Shuttle flights and for three 1-week periods during an ISS mission. The sleep-wake activity and light exposure patterns obtained in-flight will be compared with baseline data collected for two weeks at L-90 and from L-11 through L-0. Recovery from space flight will also be assessed from R+0 through R+7. These data should help us better understand the effects of space flight on sleep as well as aid in the development of effective countermeasures for both short and long-duration space flight.

See also http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/294.html

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The success and effectiveness of manned space flight depends on the ability of crew members to maintain a high level of cognitive performance and vigilance while operating and monitoring sophisticated instrumentation. Astronauts, however, commonly experience sleep disruption and may experience misalignment of circadian phase during space flight. Both of these conditions are associated with impairment of alertness and cognitive performance. A survey of 58 crew members from 9 shuttle missions revealed that most suffered from sleep disruption and were unable to sleep more than six hours per day of flight as compared to 7.9 hours per day on the ground. Ground-based studies have revealed that chronic exposure to such partial sleep loss results in progressive decrements in neurobehavioral performance during waking hours. In fact, nineteen percent of crew members on single shift missions and 50 percent of the crew members in dual shift operations have resorted to sleeping pill usage (principally benzodiazepines) during their missions, which represents more than 40% of all medication used by shuttle crew. Although benzodiazepines are effective hypnotics, their adverse next-day side effects include sedation, performance decrements, amnesia, and distortions in the sleep EEG.

Relatively little is known of the severity or cause of space flight-induced insomnia in short duration mission, and less is know about the effect of long-duration space flight on sleep and circadian rhythm organization. This experiment will use state-of-the-art ambulatory technology to monitor sleep-wake activity patterns and light exposure in crew members aboard Space Shuttle and ISS missions.

The proposed research could have significant implications for both sleep disorders medicine and space life sciences. The results of the proposed research could lead to the development of a new treatment regimen for sleep disturbances of various etiologies during space flight, which could enable crew members to avoid the decrements in alertness and performance associated with sleep deprivation. This work could therefore have a profound impact on the health, productivity and safety not only of astronauts during space flight, but also of other groups with a high prevalence of insomnia, such as shift workers and older people.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2011 
Task Progress: In the past year (January 1, 2010- November 19, 2010), 10 subjects on 3 Space Shuttle flights (STS-130, STS-131, and STS-132) completed the protocol. Seven additional crewmembers assigned to STS-133, and STS-134 have volunteered to participate in this protocol. Additionally, 18 ISS crewmembers have completed this experiment, to date and data collection is ongoing for 3 additional ISS crewmembers. Actigraphy data continue to be scored and are undergoing interpretation and analysis. Computer programming continues that will allow direct input of Actiwatch data into our Computer Performance Simulation Software. This will allow us to estimate the circadian phase of each subject pre-launch, inflight and post-flight.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Barger LK, Wright KP Jr, Walsh L, Kubey A, Czeisler CA. "Sleep on the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station." Presented at 20th Congress of the European Sleep Research Society, Lisbon, Portugal, September 14-18, 2010.

20th Congress of the European Sleep Research Society, Lisbon, Portugal, September 14-18, 2010. , Sep-2010

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Barger LK, Wright KP Jr, Czeisler CA. "Sleep and Circadian Rhythms in Crewmembers Aboard Space Shuttle and International Space Station Missions." Presented at the 12th Biennial Meeting, Society for Research on Biological Rhythms, Destin, Florida, May 22-26, 2010.

12th Biennial Meeting, Society for Research on Biological Rhythms, Destin, Florida, May 22-26, 2010. , May-2010

Project Title:  Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2010 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 01/24/2001  
End Date: 04/30/2012  
Task Last Updated: 11/19/2009 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Czeisler, Charles A. M.D., Ph.D. / Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Address:  Division of Sleep Medicine 
221 Longwood Ave., Ste. 438 
Boston , MA 02115-5804 
Email: caczeisler@rics.bwh.harvard.edu 
Phone: 617-732-4013  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Co-PI: Barger, Laura  Harvard Medical School 
Wright, Kenneth  Ph.D. University of Colorado 
Ronda, Joseph  M.S. Harvard Medical School 
Evans, Erin  Brigham and Women's Hospital 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: Laura K. Barger, Ph.D. is assigned as Co-Principal Investigator (1/2008 report).
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC9-119 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Shea, Cami1e  
Center Contact: 281-244-2017 
shea@dsls.usra.edu 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 98-HEDS-02 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC9-119 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Sleep03:Sleep3: Does sleep loss continue on long duration spaceflight or is there adaptation? What is the nature of circadian desynchronization, extended wakefulness and work overload over long duration missions? (Closed, per IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: STS 129, 130, 131, 132 ; ISS increments 22-24 (addt'l flight info per PI 11/2009)

STS 126, STS 127, STS 128 ; ISS Increments 18-21 (addt'l flight info per PI office, 11/2008)

STS 122, STS 123, STS 124, STS 125; ISS Increment 17 (add'l flight info per PI office, 1/2008)

STS 116, STS 118, STS 120; ISS Increments 14, 15, 16 (add'l flight info provided 11/06)

STS 121, STS 115; ISS Increments 13-14

STS 104, STS 109, STS 111, STS 112, STS 113, STS 114

Task Description: Subjects will wear a small light-weight activity and light recording device for the entire duration of their mission. They will complete a sleep log each day on Shuttle flights and for three 1-week periods during an ISS mission. The sleep-wake activity and light exposure patterns obtained in-flight will be compared with baseline data collected for two weeks at L-90 and from L-11 through L-0. Recovery from space flight will also be assessed from R+0 through R+7. These data should help us better understand the effects of space flight on sleep as well as aid in the development of effective countermeasures for both short and long-duration space flight.

See also http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/294.html

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The success and effectiveness of manned space flight depends on the ability of crew members to maintain a high level of cognitive performance and vigilance while operating and monitoring sophisticated instrumentation. Astronauts, however, commonly experience sleep disruption and may experience misalignment of circadian phase during space flight. Both of these conditions are associated with impairment of alertness and cognitive performance. A survey of 58 crew members from 9 shuttle missions revealed that most suffered from sleep disruption and were unable to sleep more than six hours per day of flight as compared to 7.9 hours per day on the ground. Ground-based studies have revealed that chronic exposure to such partial sleep loss results in progressive decrements in neurobehavioral performance during waking hours. In fact, nineteen percent of crew members on single shift missions and 50 percent of the crew members in dual shift operations have resorted to sleeping pill usage (principally benzodiazepines) during their missions, which represents more than 40% of all medication used by shuttle crew. Although benzodiazepines are effective hypnotics, their adverse next-day side effects include sedation, performance decrements, amnesia, and distortions in the sleep EEG.

Relatively little is known of the severity or cause of space flight-induced insomnia in short duration mission, and less is know about the effect of long-duration space flight on sleep and circadian rhythm organization. This experiment will use state-of-the-art ambulatory technology to monitor sleep-wake activity patterns and light exposure in crew members aboard Space Shuttle and ISS missions.

The proposed research could have significant implications for both sleep disorders medicine and space life sciences. The results of the proposed research could lead to the development of a new treatment regimen for sleep disturbances of various etiologies during space flight, which could enable crew members to avoid the decrements in alertness and performance associated with sleep deprivation. This work could therefore have a profound impact on the health, productivity and safety not only of astronauts during space flight, but also of other groups with a high prevalence of insomnia, such as shift workers and older people.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2010 
Task Progress: In the past year (January 1, 2009- November 19, 2009), 12 subjects on 4 Space Shuttle flights (STS-125, STS-119, STS-127 and STS-128) completed the protocol. Five crewmembers on STS-129 are expected to complete the protocol in Dec, 2009. Ten additional crewmembers assigned to STS-130, STS-131, and STS-132 have volunteered to participate in this protocol. Additionally, 5 ISS crewmembers have completed this experiment and data collection is ongoing for 4 additional ISS crewmembers. Actigraphy data continue to be scored and are undergoing interpretation and analysis. Computer programming continues that will allow direct input of Actiwatch data into our Computer Performance Simulation Software. This will allow us to estimate the circadian phase of each subject pre-launch, inflight and post-flight. Through the FAS Science Challenge Internship Program, a Ph.D. student from Ireland was assigned the Division of Sleep Medicine; he devoted a portion of his efforts to data analysis on this project for approximately 6 months (September 2008 until April 2009).

Protocol. Our data collection protocol remains the same.

Equipment. Crewmembers continue to use the recently designed neoprene bands for the Actiwatch and the reduced-in-size sleep logs. Based on feedback from the crewmembers, we also offer a choice to use the old Velcro bands.

Recruitment of Subjects. STS-129, STS-130, STS-131 and STS-132 crewmembers were given an informed consent briefing in this past year. At least 3 crewmembers on each Shuttle mission volunteered to participate. All U.S. crewmembers (primary and back-up) scheduled for ISS missions were also briefed. All of the ISS crewmembers volunteered to participate. We also briefed and had volunteers from ESA ISS crewmembers.

Training. FAM training sessions were conducted with volunteer participants from STS-127, STS-128, STS-129, STS-130, STS-131 and STS-132.. Increments 21-24 were trained as well.

Baseline Data Collection. Baseline (L-90) data were collected for STS-119, STS-127, STS-128 and STS-129 crewmembers. Baseline (L-90) data were also collected for ISS crewmembers. Preflight (L-11 until launch) data were collected for STS-119, STS-127, STS-128 and STS-129 crewmembers and ISS crewmembers.

Postflight data (landing until R+7) were collected for STS-125, STS-119, STS-127 and STS-128 crewmembers and for ISS crewmembers assigned to Increments 18 and 19. Additonal postflight debriefs are expected in December 2009 for STS-129 and ESA ISS crewmembers. [Both prime and back-up ISS crewmembers participated in BDC data collection].

Inflight Data Collection. In flight data were collected for STS-125 (4), STS-119 (2), STS-127 (2) and STS-128 (4) crewmembers and five ISS crewmembers assigned to Increments 18 and 19. Data collection is onging for 4 ISS crewmembers.

Flight Assignment Description: STS 104, STS 109, STS 111, STS 112, STS 113, STS 114, STS-115, STS-116, STS-118 STS-120, STS-121, STS 122, STS 123, STS 124, STS 125, STS 126, STS-127, STS-128, STS-129, STS-130, STS-131, STS-132. ISS Increments 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21.22, 23, 24

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Barger LK, Wright KP Jr, Walsh L, Benedix S, Kubey A, Czeisler CA. "Sleep on Multiple Space Shuttle and International Space Station Missions." Presented at the NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, South Shore Harbour Resort and Conference Center, League City, Texas, February 2009.

Conference proceedings, NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, February 2009. , Feb-2009

Project Title:  Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2009 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 01/24/2001  
End Date: 04/30/2012  
Task Last Updated: 11/25/2008 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Czeisler, Charles A. M.D., Ph.D. / Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Address:  Division of Sleep Medicine 
221 Longwood Ave., Ste. 438 
Boston , MA 02115-5804 
Email: caczeisler@rics.bwh.harvard.edu 
Phone: 617-732-4013  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Barger, Laura  Ph.D. Harvard Medical School 
Wright, Kenneth  Ph.D. University of Colorado 
Ronda, Joseph  M.S. Harvard Medical School 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: Laura K. Barger, Ph.D. was assigned to Co-Principal Investigator.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC9-119 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Shea, Cami1e  
Center Contact: 281-244-2017 
shea@dsls.usra.edu 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 98-HEDS-02 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC9-119 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Sleep03:Sleep3: Does sleep loss continue on long duration spaceflight or is there adaptation? What is the nature of circadian desynchronization, extended wakefulness and work overload over long duration missions? (Closed, per IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: STS 122, STS 123, STS 124, STS 125, ISS Increment 17 (additional flight assignments, per PI office, 1/2008)

STS 116, STS 118, STS 120, ISS Increments 14, 15, 16 (additional flight info provided 11/06)

STS 121, STS 115, ISS Increment 13 and Increment 14

STS 104, STS 109, STS 111, STS 112, STS 113, STS 114

Task Description: Subjects will wear a small light-weight activity and light recording device for the entire duration of their mission. They will complete a sleep log each day on Shuttle flights and for three 1-week periods during an ISS mission. The sleep-wake activity and light exposure patterns obtained in-flight will be compared with baseline data collected for two weeks at L-90 and from L-11 through L-0. Recovery from space flight will also be assessed from R+0 through R+7. These data should help us better understand the effects of space flight on sleep as well as aid in the development of effective countermeasures for both short and long-duration space flight.

See also http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/294.html

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The success and effectiveness of manned space flight depends on the ability of crew members to maintain a high level of cognitive performance and vigilance while operating and monitoring sophisticated instrumentation. Astronauts, however, commonly experience sleep disruption, together with misalignment of circadian phase during space flight. Both of these conditions are associated with impairment of alertness and cognitive performance. A survey of 58 crew members from 9 shuttle missions revealed that most suffered from sleep disruption and were unable to sleep more than six hours per day of flight as compared to 7.9 hours per day on the ground. Ground-based studies have revealed that chronic exposure to such partial sleep loss results in progressive decrements in neurobehavioral performance during waking hours. In fact, nineteen percent of crew members on single shift missions and 50 percent of the crew members in dual shift operations have resorted to sleeping pill usage (principally benzodiazepines) during their missions, which represents more than 40% of all medication used by shuttle crew. Although benzodiazepines are effective hypnotics, their adverse next-day side effects include sedation, performance decrements, amnesia, and distortions in the sleep EEG.

Relatively little is known of the severity or cause of space flight-induced insomnia in short duration mission, and less is know about the effect of long-duration space flight on sleep and circadian rhythm organization. This experiment will use state-of-the-art ambulatory technology to monitor sleep-wake activity patterns and light exposure in crew members aboard Space Shuttle and ISS missions.

The proposed research could have significant implications for both sleep disorders medicine and space life sciences. The results of the proposed research could lead to the development of a new treatment regimen for sleep disturbances of various etiologies during space flight, which could enable crew members to avoid the decrements in alertness and performance associated with sleep deprivation. This work could therefore have a profound impact on the health, productivity and safety not only of astronauts during space flight, but also of other groups with a high prevalence of insomnia, such as shift workers and older people.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2009 
Task Progress: In the past year (January 1, 2008- November 25, 2008), 8 subjects on 3 Space Shuttle flights (STS-122, STS-123 and STS-124) completed the protocol. 6 crewmembers on STS-126 are expected to complete the protocol in Dec, 2008. Thirteen additional crewmembers assigned to STS-125, STS-119, STS-127 and STS-128 have volunteered to participate in this protocol. Data collection was also completed on a two spaceflight participants, one from the Korean Space Agency and one from the U.S. Additionally, 3 ISS crewmembers have completed this experiment and data collection is ongoing for 2 additional ISS crewmembers. Actigraphy data continue to be scored and are undergoing interpretation and analysis. Computer programming continues that will allow direct input of Actiwatch data into our Computer Performance Simulation Software. This will allow us to estimate the circadian phase of each subject pre-launch, inflight and post-flight. Through the FAS Science Challenge Internship Program, a Ph.D. student from Ireland was assigned to the Division of Sleep Medicine; he will devote the majority of his efforts to data analysis on this project for approximately 6 months (September 2008 until April 2009). Protocol. Our data collection protocol remains the same.

Equipment. Crewmembers used the recently designed neoprene bands for the Actiwatch and the reduced-in-size sleep logs. Both equipment modifications were well-received by crewmembers. The ISS sleep log software was revised to accommodate crewmembers’ request for additional default values.

Recruitment of Subjects. STS-126, STS-127, STS-128 crewmembers and two spaceflight participants were given an informed consent briefing in this past year. At least 2 crewmembers on each Shuttle mission volunteered to participate. All U.S. crewmembers (primary and back-up) scheduled for ISS missions were also briefed. All of the ISS crewmembers volunteered to participate. We also briefed and had volunteers from ESA ISS crewmembers.

Training. FAM training sessions were conducted with volunteer participants from STS-125 and STS-126.. Increments 18, 19, and 20 were trained as well.

Baseline Data Collection. Baseline (L-90) data were collected for STS-124, STS-125, STS-126 and two spaceflight participants. Baseline (L-90) data were also collected for ISS crewmembers assigned to Increment 18, 19 and 20. Preflight (L-11 until launch) data were collected for STS-122, STS-123, STS-124, and STS-126 crewmembers and ISS crewmembers assigned to Increment 17 and 18. Postflight data (landing until R+7) were collected for STS-122, STS-123 and STS-124 crewmembers, two spaceflight participants and for ISS crewmembers assigned to Increments 16 and 17. Additonal postflight debriefs are expected in December 2008 for STS-126 and Increment 17 crewmembers. [Both prime and back-up ISS crewmembers participated in BDC data collection].

Inflight Data Collection. In flight data were collected for STS-122 (3), STS-123 (3) and STS-124 (2) crewmembers and ISS crewmembers assigned to Increments 16 (2), 17 (1). Data collection is ongoing for 1 crewmember on Inc 17 and 2 crewmembers on Inc 18.

Flight Assignments: STS 104, STS 109, STS 111, STS 112, STS 113, STS 114, STS-115, STS-116 , STS-118, STS-120, STS-121, STS 122, STS 123, STS 124, STS 125, STS 126, STS-127, STS-128 and ISS Increments 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 , 19, 20, 21

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Barger LK, Wright KP Jr, Czeisler CA. "The Sleep of Crewmembers on Nine Space Shuttle Missions." Presented at the NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, South Shore Harbour Resort and Conference Center, League City, Texas, February 2008.

Conference proceedings, NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, February 2008. , Feb-2008

Project Title:  Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2008 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 01/24/2001  
End Date: 04/30/2012  
Task Last Updated: 01/08/2008 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Czeisler, Charles A. M.D., Ph.D. / Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Address:  Division of Sleep Medicine 
221 Longwood Ave., Ste. 438 
Boston , MA 02115-5804 
Email: caczeisler@rics.bwh.harvard.edu 
Phone: 617-732-4013  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Barger, Laura  Ph.D. Harvard Medical School 
Wright, Kenneth  Ph.D. University of Colorado 
Ronda, Joseph  M.S. Harvard Medical School 
Key Personnel Changes / Previous PI: Laura K. Barger, Ph.D. was assigned to Co-Principal Investigator.
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC9-119 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Shea, Cami1e  
Center Contact: 281-244-2017 
shea@dsls.usra.edu 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 98-HEDS-02 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC9-119 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Sleep03:Sleep3: Does sleep loss continue on long duration spaceflight or is there adaptation? What is the nature of circadian desynchronization, extended wakefulness and work overload over long duration missions? (Closed, per IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: STS 122, STS 123, STS 124, STS 125, ISS Increment 17 (additional flight assignments, per PI office, 1/2008)

STS 116, STS 118, STS 120, ISS Increments 14, 15, 16 (additional flight info provided 11/06)

STS 121, STS 115, ISS Increment 13 and Increment 14

STS 104, STS 109, STS 111, STS 112, STS 113, STS 114

Task Description: Subjects will wear a small light-weight activity and light recording device for the entire duration of their mission. They will complete a sleep log each day on Shuttle flights and for three 1-week periods during an ISS mission. The sleep-wake activity and light exposure patterns obtain in-flight will be compared with baseline data collected for two weeks at L-90 and from L-11 through L-0. Recovery from space flight will also be assessed from R+0 through R+7. These data should help us better understand the effects of space flight on sleep as well as aid in the development of effective countermeasures for both short and long-duration space flight.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The success and effectiveness of manned space flight depends on the ability of crew members to maintain a high level of cognitive performance and vigilance while operating and monitoring sophisticated instrumentation. Astronauts, however, commonly experience sleep disruption, together with misalignment of circadian phase during space flight. Both of these conditions are associated with impairment of alertness and cognitive performance. A survey of 58 crew members from 9 shuttle missions revealed that most suffered from sleep disruption and were unable to sleep more than six hours per day of flight as compared to 7.9 hours per day on the ground. Ground-based studies have revealed that chronic exposure to such partial sleep loss results in progressive decrements in neurobehavioral performance during waking hours. In fact, nineteen percent of crew members on single shift missions and 50 percent of the crew members in dual shift operations have resorted to sleeping pill usage (principally benzodiazepines) during their missions, which represents more than 40% of all medication used by shuttle crew. Although benzodiazepines are effective hypnotics, their adverse next-day side effects include sedation, performance decrements, amnesia, and distortions in the sleep EEG.

Relatively little is known of the severity or cause of space flight-induced insomnia in short duration mission, and less is know about the effect of long-duration space flight on sleep and circadian rhythm organization. This experiment will use state-of-the-art ambulatory technology to monitor sleep-wake activity patterns and light exposure in crew members aboard Space Shuttle and ISS missions.

The proposed research could have significant implications for both sleep disorders medicine and space life sciences. The results of the proposed research could lead to the development of a new treatment regimen for sleep disturbances of various etiologies during space flight, which could enable crew members to avoid the decrements in alertness and performance associated with sleep deprivation. This work could therefore have a profound impact on the health, productivity and safety not only of astronauts during space flight, but also of other groups with a high prevalence of insomnia, such as shift workers and older people.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2008 
Task Progress: In the past year (January 1, 2007- December 31, 2007), 10 subjects on two Space Shuttle flights (STS-118 and STS-120) completed the protocol. Thirteen additional crewmembers assigned to STS-122, STS-123, STS-124 and STS-125 have volunteered to participate in this protocol. Additionally, 3 ISS crewmembers have completed this experiment and data collection is ongoing for 2 additional ISS crewmembers. Actigraphy data continue to be scored and are undergoing interpretation and analysis. Computer programming continues that will allow direct input of Actiwatch data into our Computer Performance Simulation Software. This will allow us to estimate the circadian phase of each subject pre-launch, inflight and post-flight. Through the FAS Science Challenge Internship Program, a Ph.D. student from Ireland was assigned the Division of Sleep Medicine; he will devote the majority of his efforts to data analysis on this project for approximately 8 months (September 2007 until April 2008). Protocol. Our data collection protocol remains the same.

Equipment. In response to crewmembers’ requests, we have designed and implemented a new band to hold the Actiwatch. It is made of neoprene and crewembers have told us that it is more comfortable than the old-style velcro bands. We have also reduced the size of the daily sleep log to a size compatible with the crew notebooks. This change was implemented on STS-118 and feedback from crewmembers indicates that it is easier to complete the log each day when it is located in the notebook. The ISS sleep log software is being revised to accommodate crewmembers’ request for additional default values.

Recruitment of Subjects. STS-122, STS-123, STS-124 and STS-125 crewmembers were given an informed consent briefing in this past year. At least 3 crewmembers on each Shuttle mission volunteered to participate. All U.S. crewmembers (primary and back-up) scheduled for ISS missions were also briefed. All of the ISS crewmembers volunteered to participate.

Training. FAM training sessions were conducted with volunteer participants from STS-118 (Feb 07), STS-120 (Jun 07), STS-122 (Jun 07), STS-123 (Aug 07), STS-124 (Nov 07). ISS crewmembers assigned to Increments 15, 16 and 17 were trained as well.

Baseline Data Collection. Baseline (L-90) data were collected for STS-118, STS-120, STS-122 and STS-123 crewmembers. Baseline (L-90) data were also collected for ISS crewmembers assigned to Increment 15, 16 and 17. Preflight (L-11 until launch) data were collected for STS-118, STS-120 and STS-122 crewmembers and ISS crewmembers assigned to Increment 15 and 16. (The STS-122 L-11 BDC will be repeated in 2008 when launch is rescheduled). Postflight data (landing until R+7) were collected for STS-118 and STS-120 crewmembers and for ISS crewmembers assigned to Increments 14 and 15. [Both prime and back-up ISS crewmembers participated in BDC data collection].

Inflight Data Collection. In flight data were collected for STS-118 (4) and STS-120 (6) crewmembers and ISS crewmembers assigned to Increments 14 (2), 15 (1) and 16 (data for collection for 2 crewmembers ongoing).

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2008
Project Title:  Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2007 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 01/24/2001  
End Date: 04/30/2009  
Task Last Updated: 11/15/2006 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Czeisler, Charles A. M.D., Ph.D. / Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Address:  Division of Sleep Medicine 
221 Longwood Ave., Ste. 438 
Boston , MA 02115-5804 
Email: caczeisler@rics.bwh.harvard.edu 
Phone: 617-732-4013  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Barger, Laura  Ph.D. Harvard Medical School 
Wright, Kenneth  University of Colorado 
Ronda, Joseph  Harvard Medical School 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC9-119 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: McCollum, Suzanne  
Center Contact: 281 483-7307 
suzanne.g.mccollum@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 98-HEDS-02 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC9-119 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Sleep03:Sleep3: Does sleep loss continue on long duration spaceflight or is there adaptation? What is the nature of circadian desynchronization, extended wakefulness and work overload over long duration missions? (Closed, per IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: STS 116, STS 118, STS 120, ISS Increments 14, 15, 16 (additional flight info provided 11/06)

STS 121, STS 115, Increment 13 and Increment 14

STS 104, STS 109, STS 111, STS 112, STS 113, STS 114

Task Description: Subjects will wear a small light-weight activity and light recording device for the entire duration of their mission. They will complete a sleep log each day on Shuttle flights and for three 1-week periods during an ISS mission. The sleep-wake activity and light exposure patterns obtain in-flight will be compared with baseline data collected for two weeks at L-90 and from L-11 through L-0. Recovery from space flight will also be assessed from R+0 through R+7. These data should help us better understand the effects of space flight on sleep as well as aid in the development of effective countermeasures for both short and long-duration space flight.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The success and effectiveness of manned space flight depends on the ability of crew members to maintain a high level of cognitive performance and vigilance while operating and monitoring sophisticated instrumentation. Astronauts, however, commonly experience sleep disruption, together with misalignment of circadian phase during space flight. Both of these conditions are associated with impairment of alertness and cognitive performance. A survey of 58 crew members from 9 shuttle missions revealed that most suffered from sleep disruption and were unable to sleep more than six hours per day of flight as compared to 7.9 hours per day on the ground. Ground-based studies have revealed that chronic exposure to such partial sleep loss results in progressive decrements in neurobehavioral performance during waking hours. In fact, nineteen percent of crew members on single shift missions and 50 percent of the crew members in dual shift operations have resorted to sleeping pill usage (principally benzodiazepines) during their missions, which represents more than 40% of all medication used by shuttle crew. Although benzodiazepines are effective hypnotics, their adverse next-day side effects include sedation, performance decrements, amnesia, and distortions in the sleep EEG.

Relatively little is known of the severity or cause of space flight-induced insomnia in short duration mission, and less is know about the effect of long-duration space flight on sleep and circadian rhythm organization. This experiment will use state-of-the-art ambulatory technology to monitor sleep-wake activity patterns and light exposure in crew members aboard Space Shuttle and ISS missions.

The proposed research could have significant implications for both sleep disorders medicine and space life sciences. The results of the proposed research could lead to the development of a new treatment regimen for sleep disturbances of various etiologies during space flight, which could enable crew members to avoid the decrements in alertness and performance associated with sleep deprivation. This work could therefore have a profound impact on the health, productivity and safety not only of astronauts during space flight, but also of other groups with a high prevalence of insomnia, such as shift workers and older people.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2007 
Task Progress: In the past year (January 1, 2006- December 31, 2006), 10 subjects on two Space Shuttle flights (STS-121 and STS-115) completed the protocol. We anticipate two more subjects to complete the procotol when STS-116 launches in December 2006. Additionally, our first ISS subject has begun the experiment. Actigraphy data continue to be scored and are undergoing interpretation and analysis. Computer programming continues that will allow direct input of Actiwatch data into our Computer Performance Simulation Software. This will allow us to estimate the circadian phase of each subject pre-launch, inflight and post-flight.

Protocol. Our data collection protocol remains the same.

Equipment. The sleep log software was finalized and is being utilized by our first ISS subject.

Recruitment of Subjects. STS-118 and STS-120 crewmembers were briefed in August 2006 and October 2006, respectively. Increment 14 crewmembers were briefed in January 2006; Increment 15 crewmembers were briefed in July 2006; and Increment 16 crewmembers were briefed in October 2006.

Training. A repeat FAM session was conducted with STS-115 crewmembers in February 2006 and STS-116 crewmembers were trained in June 2006. Increment 14 crewmembers were trained in January 2006; Increment 15 crewmembers were trained in July 2006.

Baseline Data Collection. Baseline (L-90) data were collected for STS-121 (repeated BDC; February 2006), Increment 14 (May 2006), STS-115 (June 2006) and STS-116 and Increment 15 crewmembers (October 2006). Postflight data were collected for STS-121 crewmembers in July 2006 and for STS-115 crewmembers in October 2006.

Inflight Data Collection. Postflight data were collected for four STS-121 crewmembers in July 2006 and for six STS-115 crewmembers in September 2006.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Awards Czeisler, Charles A., Ph.D., M.D., for the Harvard Work Hours, Health and Safety Group. "NIOSH Director's Award for Scientific Leadership in Occupational Safety and Health, April 2006." Apr-2006
Awards Czeisler, Charles A., Ph.D., M.D., for the Harvard Work Hours, Health and Safety Group. "National Sleep Foundation 2006 Healthy Sleep Community Award, March 2006." Mar-2006
Project Title:  Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2006 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 01/24/2001  
End Date: 04/30/2009  
Task Last Updated: 01/17/2006 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Czeisler, Charles A. M.D., Ph.D. / Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Address:  Division of Sleep Medicine 
221 Longwood Ave., Ste. 438 
Boston , MA 02115-5804 
Email: caczeisler@rics.bwh.harvard.edu 
Phone: 617-732-4013  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Barger, Laura K. Ph.D. Harvard Medical School 
Wright, Kenneth  University of Colorado 
Ronda, Joseph  Harvard Medical School 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. NCC9-119 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: McCollum, Suzanne  
Center Contact: 281 483-7307 
suzanne.g.mccollum@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 98-HEDS-02 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC9-119 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Sleep03:Sleep3: Does sleep loss continue on long duration spaceflight or is there adaptation? What is the nature of circadian desynchronization, extended wakefulness and work overload over long duration missions? (Closed, per IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: STS 121, STS 115, Increment 13 and Increment 14

Task Description: Subjects will wear a small light-weight activity and light recording device for the entire duration of their mission. The sleep-wake activity and light exposure patterns obtain in-flight will be compared with baseline data collection collected for two weeks at L-90 and from L-11 through L-0. Recovery from space flight will also be assessed from R+0 through R+7. These data should help us better understand the effects of space flight on sleep as well as aid in the development of effective countermeasures for both short and long-duration space flight.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The success and effectiveness of manned space flight depends on the ability of crew members to maintain a high level of cognitive performance and vigilance while operating and monitoring sophisticated instrumentation. Astronauts, however, commonly experience sleep disruption, together with misalignment of circadian phase during space flight. Both of these conditions are associated with impairment of alertness and cognitive performance. A survey of 58 crew members from 9 shuttle missions revealed that most suffered from sleep disruption and were unable to sleep more than six hours per day of flight as compared to 7.9 hours per day on the ground. Ground-based studies have revealed that chronic exposure to such partial sleep loss results in progressive decrements in neurobehavioral performance during waking hours. In fact, nineteen percent of crew members on single shift missions and 50 percent of the crew members in dual shift operations have resorted to sleeping pill usage (principally benzodiazepines) during their missions, which represents more than 40% of all medication used by shuttle crew. Although benzodiazepines are effective hypnotics, their adverse next-day side effects include sedation, performance decrements, amnesia, and distortions in the sleep EEG.

Relatively little is known of the severity or cause of space flight-induced insomnia in short duration mission, and less is know about the effect of long-duration space flight on sleep and circadian rhythm organization. This experiment will use state-of-the-art ambulatory technology to monitor sleep-wake activity patterns and light exposure in all crew members aboard Space Shuttle missions. The proposed research could have significant implications for both sleep disorders medicine and space life sciences. The results of the proposed research could lead to the development of a new treatment regimen for sleep disturbances of various etiologies during space flight, which could enable crew members to avoid the decrements in alertness and performance associated with sleep deprivation. This work could therefore have a profound impact on the health, productivity and safety not only of astronauts during space flight, but also of other groups with a high prevalence of insomnia, such as shift workers and older people.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2006 
Task Progress: In the past year (January 1, 2005- December 31, 2005), the Space Shuttle returned to flight (STS-114) and two crewmembers completed the protocol. Baseline data (L-90) data were collected in January 2005, preflight baseline data (L-11) and inflight data were collected in July 2005, and postflight data were collected in August 2005.

Four crewmembers on STS-121 were trained in January 2005 and their L-90 baseline data were collected for two weeks in April 2005.

We also made substantial progress on the International Space Station portion of this project and have continued preparations for implementing this experiment with ISS crewmembers. The sleep log software is being finalized and will allow implementation of our experiment on ISS. We completed our first crew pitch for ISS crewmembers (Increment 13) in October, 2005 and training was completed in November 2005. Although a crewmember is interested in participating in this experiment, it is unclear at this time whether the research can be supported on Increment 13.

Additionally, we have focused on data analysis. Actigraphy data were scored and are undergoing interpretation and analysis. Preliminary data were presented at a joint NSBRI/NASA conference in Houston on May 5, 2005. Computer programming continues that will allow direct input of Actiwatch data into our Computer Performance Simulation Software. This will allow us to estimate the circadian phase of each subject pre-launch, inflight and post-flight. We are also considering the development of new algorithms that determine sleep and wake from actigraphy data to enhance our analysis of the data.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2006
Project Title:  Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2004 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Start Date: 01/24/2001  
End Date: 06/30/2005  
Task Last Updated: 03/23/2006 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Czeisler, Charles A. M.D., Ph.D. / Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Address:  Division of Sleep Medicine 
221 Longwood Ave., Ste. 438 
Boston , MA 02115-5804 
Email: caczeisler@rics.bwh.harvard.edu 
Phone: 617-732-4013  
Congressional District:
Web:  
Organization Type: UNIVERSITY 
Organization Name: Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Barger, Laura  Harvard Medical School 
Wright, Kenneth  University of Colorado 
Ronda, Joseph  Harvard Medical School 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. None 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: McCollum, Suzanne  
Center Contact: 281 483-7307 
suzanne.g.mccollum@nasa.gov 
Solicitation / Funding Source: 98-HEDS-02 
Grant/Contract No.: None 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) Sleep03:Sleep3: Does sleep loss continue on long duration spaceflight or is there adaptation? What is the nature of circadian desynchronization, extended wakefulness and work overload over long duration missions? (Closed, per IRP Rev E)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: Flew on STS-104, Currently scheduled for STS-107 and STS-111

Task Description: Subjects will wear a small light-weight activity and light recording device for the entire duration of their mission. The sleep-wake activity and light exposure patterns obtain in-flight will be compared with baseline data collection collected for two weeks at L-90 and from L-11 through L-0. Recovery from space flight will also be assessed from R+0 through R+7. These data should help us better understand the effects of space flight on sleep as well as aid in the development of effective countermeasures for both short and long-duration space flight.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The success and effectiveness of manned space flight depends on the ability of crew members to maintain a high level of cognitive performance and vigilance while operating and monitoring sophisticated instrumentation. Astronauts, however, commonly experience sleep disruption, together with misalignment of circadian phase during space flight. Both of these conditions are associated with impairment of alertness and cognitive performance. A survey of 58 crew members from 9 shuttle missions revealed that most suffered from sleep disruption and were unable to sleep more than six hours per day of flight as compared to 7.9 hours per day on the ground. Ground-based studies have revealed that chronic exposure to such partial sleep loss results in progressive decrements in neurobehavioral performance during waking hours. In fact, nineteen percent of crew members on single shift missions and 50 percent of the crew members in dual shift operations have resorted to sleeping pill usage (principally benzodiazepines) during their missions, which represents more than 40% of all medication used by shuttle crew. Although benzodiazepines are effective hypnotics, their adverse next-day side effects include sedation, performance decrements, amnesia, and distortions in the sleep EEG.

Relatively little is known of the severity or cause of space flight-induced insomnia in short duration mission, and less is know about the effect of long-duration space flight on sleep and circadian rhythm organization. This experiment will use state-of-the-art ambulatory technology to monitor sleep-wake activity patterns and light exposure in all crew members aboard Space Shuttle missions. The proposed research could have significant implications for both sleep disorders medicine and space life sciences. The results of the proposed research could lead to the development of a new treatment regimen for sleep disturbances of various etiologies during space flight, which could enable crew members to avoid the decrements in alertness and performance associated with sleep deprivation. This work could therefore have a profound impact on the health, productivity and safety not only of astronauts during space flight, but also of other groups with a high prevalence of insomnia, such as shift workers and older people.

We intend to test the following three primary specific aims: 1. Test the hypothesis that space flight results in substantial disruption of sleep, as compared to baseline, in short-duration missions. 2. Test the hypothesis that this sleep disruption is associated with inappropriately timed (e.g., non-24 hour) or insufficiently intense light exposure. 3. Test the hypothesis that this sleep disruption and circadian misalignment will lead to subjective dissatisfaction with self-reported sleep quality and daytime alertness.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2004 
Task Progress: No progress report this reporting period.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 02/11/2021) 

Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2004