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Project Title:  Physiological Factors Contributing to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance (Functional Task Test) Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2015 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 06/19/2008  
End Date: 11/30/2014  
Task Last Updated: 04/16/2015 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Bloomberg, Jacob J. Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division 
2101 NASA Parkway, SK272 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: jacob.j.bloomberg@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-0436  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Feiveson, Alan  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Lee, Stuart  Wyle Laboratories/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Mulavara, Ajitkumar   USRA 
Peters, Brian  Wyle Labs/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Platts, Steven  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Reschke, Millard  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Ryder, Jeffrey  USRA 
Spiering, Barry  Wyle Labs/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Stenger, Michael  Wyle Labs/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Ploutz-Snyder, Lori  USRA 
Tomilovskaya, Elena  Institute of Biomedical Problems 
Kozlovskaya, Inessa  Institute of Biomedical Problems 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
(2) OI:Risk of Orthostatic Intolerance during Re-Exposure to Gravity
(3) Sensorimotor (SM):Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft, Associated Systems and Immediate Vehicle Egress Due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alterations Associated with Space Flight
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) CV03:Is orthostatic intolerance a potential hazard?
(2) SM2.1:Determine the changes in sensorimotor function over the course of a mission and during recovery after landing (IRP Rev F)
(3) SM7.1:Determine if there are decrements in performance on functional tasks after long-duration spaceflight. Determine how changes in physiological function, exercise activity, and/or clinical data account for these decrements (IRP Rev F)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date changed to 11/30/2014 per HRP information (Ed., 3/31/15)

NOTE: Gap changes per IRP Rev E (Ed., 3/18/14)

NOTE: End date changed to 5/5/2015 and Risk/Gaps changed per JSC MTL dtd 11/11/11 (Ed., 11/18/2011)

NOTE: End date changed to 3/17/2014 (previously 9/30/13) per JSC (2/2010)

Task Description: Exposure to the microgravity conditions of spaceflight causes astronauts to experience alterations in multiple physiological systems including sensorimotor disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning, and loss of muscle mass and strength. Some or all of these changes might affect the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. The goals of the Functional Task Test (FTT) study were to determine the effects of spaceflight on functional tests that are representative of critical exploration mission tasks and to identify the key physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance.

The FTT was comprised of seven functional tests and a corresponding set of interdisciplinary physiological measures targeting the sensorimotor, cardiovascular and muscular adaptations associated with exposure to spaceflight. Both Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers as well as bed rest subjects participated in this study. Spaceflight data were collected in three sessions before flight, on landing day (Shuttle only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. Bed rest subjects were tested three times before bed rest, immediately upon getting up after 70 days of 6° head-down bed rest, as well as 1, 6, and 12 days during the subsequent re-ambulation period. The bed rest analog allowed us to isolate the impact of body unloading without other spaceflight environmental factors on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrements in performance, and then to compare those results with the results obtained in our spaceflight study.

Information obtained in this study will inform the design and implemention of countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems most responsible for the altered functional performance associated with spaceflight.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research, which requires focused and constrained data gathering and analysis that is more appropriately obtained through a non-competitive proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This study will identify which physiological systems contribute the most to impaired performance on mission critical functional tasks. This will allow us to identify the physiological systems that play the largest roles in decrements in overall functional performance. Using this information we can design and implement countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems most responsible for the altered functional performance associated with spaceflight.

In terms of Earth benefits this research will provide a better understanding of the underlying physiological mechanisms that contribute to changes in functional performance. For example, in the elderly population activities of daily living are often impaired by mutifactorial physiological causes. The information obtained from this interdisciplinary study will aid in identifying the relative contributions of sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and muscle function on comprehensive performance outcomes. This has direct application in the design of clinical interventions and rehabilitation programs that can target specific systems responsible for decline in functional performance.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2015 
Task Progress: We have shown that for Shuttle, ISS, and bed rest (control and exercise) subjects, functional tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e., fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with reduced requirements for postural stability (i.e., hatch opening, ladder climb, manual manipulation of objects, and tool use) showed little reduction in performance. These changes in functional performance were paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests designed to specifically assess postural equilibrium and dynamic gait control.

The muscle function data showed reductions in lower body muscle performance metrics in both spaceflight groups and bed rest subjects who did not exercise. Bed rest subjects who performed an integrated high intensity interval-type resistance and aerobic training program while in bed showed significantly improved lower body muscle performance compared to bed rest controls and spaceflight subjects. However, resistive and aerobic exercise alone was not sufficient to mitigate decrements in functional tasks that require dynamic postural stability and mobility and point to the need for the addition of balance training to current in-flight countermeasures.

Bed rest subjects experienced similar deficits both in functional tests with balance challenges and in sensorimotor tests designed to evaluate postural and gait control as spaceflight subjects indicating that body support unloading experienced during spaceflight plays a central role in post-flight alteration of functional task performance. Additionally, ISS crewmembers who walked on the treadmill with higher pull-down loads had enhanced post-flight performance on tests requiring mobility. Taken together the bed rest and in-flight exercise training data point to the importance of providing increased body loading during in-flight treadmill and lower body resistive exercise.

Both spaceflight and bed rest data indicate that an elevated heart rate was required to maintain arterial blood pressure during performance of multiple functional tasks. Spaceflight data indicated that restoration of plasma volume alone did not prevent the elevated heart rate experienced while prone or standing during postflight testing. These data indicate that additional countermeasures are necessary to maintain central blood volume, prevent or reverse changes in peripheral vasoconstriction, and minimize the need for elevations in heart rate during various functional tasks.

These data demonstrate that an integrated countermeasure system should be composed of the following elements: 1) A high intensity interval-type resistance and aerobic exercise training program, 2) Balance/sensorimotor adaptability training, and 3) Individualized gradient compression garments (GCG) coupled with pre-landing fluid loading. Forward work will focus on follow-up bed rest and flight studies that incorporate these elements into an integrated interdisciplinary countermeasure system for future exploration class missions.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 08/03/2020)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Mulavara AP, Batson CD, Buxton RE, Feiveson AH, Kofman IS, Lee SMC, Miller CA, Peters BT, Phillips T, Platts SH, Ploutz-Snyder LL, Reschke MF, Ryder JW, Stenger MB, Taylor LC, Wood SJ, Bloomberg JJ. "Vestibular and somatosensory convergence in postural equilibrium control: insights from spaceflight and bedrest studies." Neuroscience 2014, Washington, DC, November 15-19, 2014.

Neuroscience 2014, Washington, DC, November 15-19, 2014. Available at: http://www.abstractsonline.com/Plan/ViewAbstract.aspx?sKey=b492e985-50af-452c-811d-13cdd4ce5a01&cKey=03b98ee1-e1ae-4414-9d17-60c230d5bbd4&mKey=54c85d94-6d69-4b09-afaa-502c0e680ca7 ; accessed 4/16/2015. , Nov-2014

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bloomberg JJ, Batson CD, Buxton RE, Feiveson AH, Kofman IS, Lee SMC, Miller CA, Mulavara AP, Peters BT, Phillips T, Platts SH, Ploutz-Snyder LL, Reschke MF, Ryder JW, Stenger MB, Taylor LC, Wood SJ. "Understanding the effects of long-duration space flight on astronaut functional task performance." 3rd Annual International Space Station (ISS) Research and Development Conference, Chicago, Illinois, June 17-19, 2014.

3rd Annual International Space Station (ISS) Research and Development Conference, Chicago, Illinois, June 17-19, 2014. http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20140005022.pdf ; accessed 4/16/2015. , Jun-2014

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Madansingh S, Miller CA, Mulavara AP, Peters BT, Reschke MF, Bloomberg JJ. "Understanding the effects of spaceflight on head-trunk coordination during walking and obstacle avoidance." 65th International Astronautical Conference, Toronto, Canada, September 29-October 3, 2014.

65th International Astronautical Conference, Toronto, Canada, September 29-October 3, 2014. http://www.iafastro.net/iac/archive/browse/IAC-14/A1/2/24409/ ; accessed 4/16/15. , Sep-2014

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bloomberg JJ, Batson CD, Buxton RE, Feiveson AH, Kofman IS, Laurie S, Lee SMC, Miller CA, Mulavara AP, Peters BT, Phillips T, Platts SH, Ploutz-Snyder LL, Reschke MF, Ryder JW, Stenger MB, Taylor LC, Wood SJ. "Treadmill exercise with increased body loading enhances postflight functional performance." Presented at the 2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 13-15, 2015.

2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 13-15, 2015. , Jan-2015

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bloomberg JJ, Batson CD, Buxton RE, Feiveson AH, Kofman IS, Laurie S, Lee SMC, Miller CA, Mulavara AP, Peters BT, Phillips T, Platts SH, Ploutz-Snyder LL, Reschke MF, Ryder JW, Stenger MB, Taylor LC, Wood SJ. "Inflight treadmill exercise can serve as a multi-disciplinary countermeasure system." Presented at the 2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 13-15, 2015.

2015 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, January 13-15, 2015. , Jan-2015

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bloomberg JJ, Feiveson AH, Laurie SS, Lee, SMC, Mulavara AP, Peters BT, Platts SH, Ploutz-Snyder LL, Reschke MF, Ryder JW, Stenger MB, Taylor LC, Wood SJ. "Providing information for an integrated countermeasure system." 20th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Prague, Czech Republic, June 29-July 3, 2015.

20th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Prague, Czech Republic, June 29-July 3, 2015. In press, as of April 2015. , Jun-2015

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Laurie SS, Lee SMC, Phillips TR, Dillon, EL, Sheffield-Moore M, Urban RJ, Ploutz-Snyder L, Stenger MB, Bloomberg JJ. "NASA's Functional Task Test: High intensity exercise improves HR responses during functional tasks and their recovery following 70-day bedrest." 20th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Prague, Czech Republic, June 29-July 3, 2015.

20th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Prague, Czech Republic, June 29-July 3, 2015. In press as of April 2015. , Jun-2015

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Madansingh S, Bloomberg JJ. "Virtual reality as a medium for sensorimotor adaptation training and spaceflight countermeasures." 36th Annual International Gravitational Physiology Meeting, Ljubljana, Slovenia, June 7-12, 2015.

36th Annual International Gravitational Physiology Meeting, Ljubljana, Slovenia, June 7-12, 2015. In press as of April 2015. , Jun-2015

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Miller C, Peters B, Kofman I, Phillips T, Batson C, Cerisano J, Fisher E, Mulavara A, Feiveson A, Reschke M, Bloomberg J. "A comparison of tandem walk performance between bed rest subjects and astronauts." 39th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Columbus, OH, August 5-8, 2015.

39th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Columbus, OH, August 5-8, 2015. In press as of April 2015. , Aug-2015

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Madansingh S, Bloomberg JJ. "Understanding the effects of spaceflight on head–trunk coordination during walking and obstacle avoidance." Acta Astronaut. 2015 Oct-Nov;115:165-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2015.05.022 , Oct-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Mulavara AP, Peters BT, Miller CA, Kofman IS, Reschke MF, Taylor LC, Lawrence EL, Wood SJ, Laurie SS, Lee SMC, Buxton RE, May-Phillips TR, Stenger MB, Ploutz-Snyder LL, Ryder JW, Feiveson AH, Bloomberg JJ. "Physiological and functional alterations after spaceflight and bed rest." Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2018 Sep;50(9):1961-80. Epub 2018 Apr 3. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001615 ; PubMed PMID: 29620686 ; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6133205 , Sep-2018
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Miller CA, Kofman IS, Brady RR, May-Phillips TR, Batson CD, Lawrence EL, Taylor LC, Peters BT, Mulavara AP, Feiveson AH, Reschke MF, Bloomberg JJ. "Functional task and balance performance in bed rest subjects and astronauts." Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018 Sep;89(9):805-15. https://doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.5039.2018 ; PubMed PMID: 30126513 , Sep-2018
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Deshpande N, Laurie SS, Lee SMC, Miller CA, Mulavara AP, Peters BT, Reschke MF, Stenger MB, Taylor LC, Wood SJ, Clément GR, Bloomberg JJ. "Vestibular and cardiovascular responses after long-duration spaceflight." Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2020 Aug 1;91(8):621-7. https://doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.5502.2020 ; PMID: 32693869 , Aug-2020
Awards Bloomberg JJ, Batson CD, Buxton RE, Feiveson AH, Kofman IS, Lee SMC, Miller CA, Mulavara AP, Peters BT, Phillips T, Platts SH, Ploutz-Snyder LL, Reschke MF, Ryder JW, Stenger MB, Taylor LC, Wood SJ. "The FTT Team received an award from the American Astronautical Society for top research achievements on the ISS. 3rd Annual ISS Research and Development Conference, Chicago, IL, June 2014." Jun-2014
Project Title:  Physiological Factors Contributing to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance (Functional Task Test) Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2014 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 06/19/2008  
End Date: 11/30/2014  
Task Last Updated: 04/02/2014 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Bloomberg, Jacob J. Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division 
2101 NASA Parkway, SK272 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: jacob.j.bloomberg@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-0436  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Feiveson, Alan  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Lee, Stuart  Wyle Laboratories/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Mulavara, Ajitkumar   USRA 
Peters, Brian  Wyle Labs/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Platts, Steven  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Reschke, Millard  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Ryder, Jeffrey  USRA 
Spiering, Barry  Wyle Labs/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Stenger, Michael  Wyle Labs/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Ploutz-Snyder, Lori  USRA 
Tomilovskaya, Elena  Institute of Biomedical Problems 
Kozlovskaya, Inessa  Institute of Biomedical Problems 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
(2) OI:Risk of Orthostatic Intolerance during Re-Exposure to Gravity
(3) Sensorimotor (SM):Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft, Associated Systems and Immediate Vehicle Egress Due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alterations Associated with Space Flight
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) CV03:Is orthostatic intolerance a potential hazard?
(2) SM2.1:Determine the changes in sensorimotor function over the course of a mission and during recovery after landing (IRP Rev F)
(3) SM7.1:Determine if there are decrements in performance on functional tasks after long-duration spaceflight. Determine how changes in physiological function, exercise activity, and/or clinical data account for these decrements (IRP Rev F)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date changed to 11/30/2014 per HRP information (Ed., 3/31/15)

NOTE: Gap changes per IRP Rev E (Ed., 3/18/14)

NOTE: End date changed to 5/5/2015 and Risk/Gaps changed per JSC MTL dtd 11/11/11 (Ed., 11/18/2011)

NOTE: End date changed to 3/17/2014 (previously 9/30/13) per JSC (2/2010)

Task Description: Exposure to space flight causes alterations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These changes can affect the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. The overall goal of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of critical mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. To achieve this goal we developed an interdisciplinary testing regimen (Functional Task Test, FTT) that evaluates both astronaut functional performance and related physiological changes. A set of functional tests were designed to test astronauts in tasks that simulate high priority exploration mission activities. These include ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, emergency vehicle egress, recovery from a fall, and object translation tasks. Corresponding physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, orthostatic intolerance, upper- and lower-body muscle strength, power, endurance, control, and neuromuscular drive. Crewmembers were tested before and after Shuttle missions. Currently astronauts are participating in this study before and after ISS flights. Data were collected on two sessions before flight, on landing day (Shuttle only) and 1, 6, and 30 days after landing.

Using a multivariate regression model we will identify which physiological systems contribute the most to impaired performance on each functional test. This will allow us to identify the physiological systems that play the largest role in decrement in functional performance. Using this information we can then design and implement countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems most responsible for the altered functional performance associated with space flight.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research, which requires focused and constrained data gathering and analysis that is more appropriately obtained through a non-competitive proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This study will identify which physiological systems contribute the most to impaired performance on mission critical functional tasks. This will allow us to identify the physiological systems that play the largest roles in decrements in overall functional performance. Using this information we can design and implement countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems most responsible for the altered functional performance associated with space flight.

In terms of Earth benefits this research will provide a better understanding of the underlying physiological mechanisms that contribute to changes in functional performance. For example, in the elderly population activities of daily living are often impaired by mutifactorial physiological causes. The information obtained from this interdisciplinary study will aid in identifying the relative contributions of sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and muscle function on comprehensive performance outcomes. This has direct application in the design of clinical interventions and rehabilitation programs that can target specific systems responsible for decline in functional performance.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2014 
Task Progress: Summary of Progress

To date we have completed data collection on 7 Shuttle crewmembers and 12 ISS crewmembers.

The remaining ISS subject will return in May, 2014 completing the subject complement of 13.

Completed individual crewmember postflight data debriefs.

Completed crew Informed Consent Briefing for the 1-year ISS flight.

Selected to be featured in the 2011 Annual Report for the Human Research Program.

Completed and submitted the Shuttle Interim FTT Report (79 pages).

Presented Shuttle FTT data at the NASA/JSC Human System Risk Board (March 28, 2012).

Completed the Mid-Term Data Review (May 17, 2013).

To date we have completed 4 peer reviewed papers and 40 abstracts/presentations.

Forward work includes completing data collection on ISS subjects (n=13). Once all the data are collected we will be able to create a multivariate regression model to describe the relationship between the physiological changes associated with space flight and decrement in functional task performance along with a comparison of recovery rates between short and long-duration crewmembers. This will allow us to identify the prime physiological factors that contribute most to alteration in functional task performance. This information will then be used to inform the design of targeted countermeasure systems to mitigate these physiological changes leading to improved task performance.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 08/03/2020)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Reschke M, Ploutz-Snyder L, Kofman I, Cerisano J, Fisher E, Bloomberg J, Tomilovskaya E, Rukavishnikov I, Kozlovskaya I. "Postural responses associated with space flight and ground-based analogs." 19th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Cologne, Germany, July 7-13, 2013.

19th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Cologne, Germany, July 7-13, 2013. Abstract #252. , Jul-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Peters B, Bloomberg JJ, Mulavara A. "Dynamic visual acuity: Measuring a different source of visual impairment." National Space Biomedical Research Institute Symposium Towards Integrated Countermeasures, Houston, TX, August 28, 2013.

Presented at the National Space Biomedical Research Institute Symposium Towards Integrated Countermeasures, Houston, TX, August 28, 2013. , Aug-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bloomberg JJ, Ballard KL, Batson CD, Buxton RE, Feiveson AH, Kofman IS, Lee SMC, Miller CA, Mulavara AP, Peters BT, Phillips T, Platts SH, Ploutz-Snyder LL, Reschke MF, Ryder JW, Stenger MB, Taylor LC, Wood SJ. "Preliminary Results from the Functional Task Test (FTT) Flight and Bed Rest Studies." National Space Biomedical Research Institute Symposium Towards Integrated Countermeasures, Houston, TX, August 28, 2013.

Presented at the National Space Biomedical Research Institute Symposium Towards Integrated Countermeasures, Houston, TX, August 28, 2013. , Aug-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Reschke MF, Bloomberg JJ, Wood SJ, Mulavara AP, Kozlovskaya IB, Tomilovskaya ES, Rukavishnikov IV, Fomina EV, Platts SH, Stenger MB, Lee SMC, Feiveson AH. "Recovery of functional sensorimotor performance following long duration space flight (Field Test)." National Space Biomedical Research Institute Symposium Towards Integrated Countermeasures, Houston, TX, August 28, 2013.

Presented at the National Space Biomedical Research Institute Symposium Towards Integrated Countermeasures, Houston, TX, August 28, 2013. , Aug-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Kofman IS, Reschke MF, Cerisano JM, Fisher EA, Tomilovskaya EV, Kozlovskaya IB, Bloomberg JJ. "Postural responses following space flight and ground based analogs." XIVth Conference on Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine, Moscow, Russia, October 28-30, 2013.

XIVth Conference on Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine, Moscow, Russia, October 28-30, 2013. , Oct-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Madansingh S, Bloomberg JJ. "Understanding the effects of spaceflight on head-trunk coordination during waking and obstacle avoidance." Canadian Space Summit 2013, Ottawa, Canada, November 14-15, 2013.

Canadian Space Summit 2013, Ottawa, Canada, November 14-15, 2013. , Nov-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bloomberg JJ, Ballard KL, Batson CD, Buxton RE, Feiveson AH, Kofman IS, Lee SMC, Miller CA, Mulavara AP, Peters BT, Phillips T, Platts SH, Ploutz-Snyder LL, Reschke MF, Ryder JW, Stenger MB, Taylor LC, Wood SJ. "Body unloading associated with space flight and bed-rest impacts functional performance." 2014 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-13, 2014.

2014 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-13, 2014. http://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/hrp2014/pdf/3163.pdf , Feb-2014

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Madansingh S, Miller CA, Mulavara AP, Peters BT, Reschke MF, Bloomberg JJ. "Understanding the effects of spaceflight on head-trunk coordination during walking and obstacle avoidance" 2014 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-13, 2014.

2014 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-13, 2014. http://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/hrp2014/pdf/3245.pdf , Feb-2014

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Deshpande N, Tourtillott BM, Peters BT, Bloomberg JJ. "Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) during locomotion for targets at near and far distances: Effects of aging, walking speed and head-trunk coupling." J Vestib Res. 2013 Jan 1;23(4):195-201. http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/VES-130500 ; PubMed PMID: 24284599 , Jan-2013
Papers from Meeting Proceedings Miller C, Peters B, Kofman I, Brady R, Phillips T, Batson C, Mulavara, A, Feiveson A, Reschke M, Bloomberg JJ. "A comparison of torso stability between bed rest subjects and astronauts during tandem walk: Preliminary findings." 37th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Omaha, NE, September 4-7, 2013.

37th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Omaha, NE, September 4-7, 2013. http://www.asbweb.org/conferences/2013/abstracts/171.pdf , Sep-2013

Project Title:  Physiological Factors Contributing to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance (Functional Task Test) Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2013 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 06/19/2008  
End Date: 05/05/2015  
Task Last Updated: 04/19/2013 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Bloomberg, Jacob J. Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division 
2101 NASA Parkway, SK272 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: jacob.j.bloomberg@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-0436  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Feeback, Daniel  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Feiveson, Alan  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Lee, Stuart  Wyle Laboratories/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Mulavara, Ajitkumar   USRA 
Peters, Brian  Wyle Labs/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Platts, Steven  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Reschke, Millard  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Ryder, Jeffrey  USRA 
Spiering, Barry  Wyle Labs/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Stenger, Michael  Wyle Labs/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Ploutz-Snyder, Lori  USRA 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
(2) OI:Risk of Orthostatic Intolerance during Re-Exposure to Gravity
(3) Sensorimotor (SM):Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft, Associated Systems and Immediate Vehicle Egress Due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alterations Associated with Space Flight
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) CV03:Is orthostatic intolerance a potential hazard?
(2) SM2.1:Determine the changes in sensorimotor function over the course of a mission and during recovery after landing (IRP Rev F)
(3) SM7.1:Determine if there are decrements in performance on functional tasks after long-duration spaceflight. Determine how changes in physiological function, exercise activity, and/or clinical data account for these decrements (IRP Rev F)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: Gap changes per IRP Rev E (Ed., 3/18/14)

NOTE: End date changed to 5/5/2015 and Risk/Gaps changed per JSC MTL dtd 11/11/11 (Ed., 11/18/2011)

NOTE: End date changed to 3/17/2014 (previously 9/30/13) per JSC (2/2010)

Task Description: Exposure to space flight causes alterations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These changes can affect the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. The overall goal of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of critical mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. To achieve this goal we developed an interdisciplinary testing regimen (Functional Task Test, FTT) that evaluates both astronaut functional performance and related physiological changes. A set of functional tests were designed to test astronauts in tasks that simulate high priority exploration mission activities. These include ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, emergency vehicle egress, recovery from a fall and object translation tasks. Corresponding physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, orthostatic intolerance, upper- and lower-body muscle strength, power, endurance, control, and neuromuscular drive. Crewmembers were tested before and after Shuttle missions. Currently astronauts are participating in this study before and after ISS flights. Data were collected on two sessions before flight, on landing day (Shuttle only) and 1, 6, and 30 days after landing.

Using a multivariate regression model we will identify which physiological systems contribute the most to impaired performance on each functional test. This will allow us to identify the physiological systems that play the largest role in decrement in functional performance. Using this information we can then design and implement countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems most responsible for the altered functional performance associated with space flight.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research, which requires focused and constrained data gathering and analysis that is more appropriately obtained through a non-competitive proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This study will identify which physiological systems contribute the most to impaired performance on mission critical functional tasks. This will allow us to identify the physiological systems that play the largest roles in decrements in overall functional performance. Using this information we can design and implement countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems most responsible for the altered functional performance associated with space flight.

In terms of Earth benefits this research will provide a better understanding of the underlying physiological mechanisms that contribute to changes in functional performance. For example, in the elderly population activities of daily living are often impaired by mutifactorial physiological causes. The information obtained from this interdisciplinary study will aid in identifying the relative contributions of sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and muscle function on comprehensive performance outcomes. This has direct application in the design of clinical interventions and rehabilitation programs that can target specific systems responsible for decline in functional performance.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2013 
Task Progress: Summary of Progress

To date we have completed data collection on 7 Shuttle crewmembers and 7 ISS crewmembers (13 ISS crewmembers planned).

Six additional ISS subjects are either inflight or in the preflight data collection phase.

Completed individual crewmember postflight data debriefs.

Completed crew Informed Consent Briefings (ICB).

Selected to be featured in the 2011 Annual Report for the Human Research Program.

Completed and submitted Shuttle Interim FTT Report (79 pages).

Presented Shuttle FTT data at the NASA/JSC Human System Risk Board (March 28, 2012).

To data have completed 3 peer reviewed papers and 27 abstracts/presentations.

Summary of Preliminary Observations

1) Functional tests that required dynamic control of postural equilibrium to complete (Seat Egress and Walk, Recovery from Fall, Rock Translation, Jump Down) demonstrated the greatest postflight changes in performance. Functional Tests with reduced requirements for postural stability (Torque Generation, Ladder Climb) showed less reduction in performance. For these tests posture was stabilized while the task was being performed. In the Torque Generation Test posture was stabilized because the subject completed the task while gripping the hatch like wheel device. In the Ladder Climb Test postural instability was minimized because subjects performed the task with four points of stabilization (i.e. both hands and legs).

2) Sensorimotor tests sensitive to the vestibular component underlying postural and gait control showed the largest postflight alterations (Dynamic Posturography Test, Tandem Walk Test, Treadmill Locomotion/Dynamic Visual Acuity Test). Tests of fine motor control and force steadiness control did not change after space flight. Therefore, the observed changes in functional performance were linked to postflight alterations in vestibular function leading to decrement in performance for tasks with greater requirements for dynamic postural equilibrium control.

3) Astronauts showed postflight elevated heart rates and sympathovagal balance (an indication of the relative influence of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system on the control of heart rate) during the Recovery from Fall/Stand Test while parasympathetic activity was decreased. This result indicates a postflight shift toward sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal on R+0. Similarly, heart rate was consistently elevated during performance of all the other functional tests. There was no change in blood pressure at rest or during standing in the Recovery from Fall/Stand Test. There was also no change in plasma volume in this group of astronauts although previous investigators have reported that plasma volume is reduced after space flight. The lack of change in plasma volume for this study could have resulted from improved in-flight countermeasure compliance, stricter adherence to the fluid loading protocol, or medical intervention prior to testing. Importantly, the observations of elevated heart rate and altered autonomic responses during post-flight functional testing are more striking in that they are less likely to be linked solely to a decrease in plasma volume.

4) The muscle performance data indicate significant reductions in the leg press performance metrics of maximal isometric force, power and total work. Bench press total work was also significantly impaired, although maximal isometric force and power were not significantly affected. No overall changes were noted for measurements of central activation or force steadiness. The muscle performance data show reductions in lower body muscle performance metrics and these alterations are likely contributors to impaired functional tasks that are ambulatory in nature. Interestingly, no changes in central activation capacity were detected. Therefore, impairments in muscle function in response to short-duration space flight are likely myocellular rather than neuromotor in nature.

5) Forward work includes completing data collection on ISS subjects (n=13). Once all the data are collected we will be able to create a multivariate regression model to describe the relationship between the physiological changes associated with space flight and decrement in functional task performance along with a comparison of recovery rates between short and long-duration crewmembers. This will allow is to indentify the prime physiological factors that contribute most to alteration in functional task performance. This information will then be used to inform the design of targeted countermeasure systems to mitigate these physiological changes leading to improved task performance.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 08/03/2020)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Mulavara AP, Wood SJ, Cohen HS, Bloomberg JJ. "Locomotor dysfunction after long-duration space flight and development of countermeasures to facilitate faster recovery." Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) 2012 39th Scientific Assembly, Mysore, India, July 14-22, 2012.

Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) 2012 39th Scientific Assembly, Mysore, India, July 14-22, 2012. Abstract F5.3-0001-12. , Jul-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bloomberg JJ, Mulavara AP, Peters BT, Wood SJ, Reschke MF. "Sensorimotor countermeasures: Improving performance during gravitational transitions." 84th Annual Scientific Meeting, Aerospace Medical Association, Chicago, IL, May 12-16, 2013.

Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. 2013 Apr;84(4):422. , Apr-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bloomberg JJ, Batson CD, Brady RA, Buxton RE, Feiveson AH, Kofman IS, Lee SMC, Miller CA, Mulavara AP, Peters BT, Phillips T, Platts SH, Ploutz-Snyder LL, Reschke MF, Ryder JW, Spiering BA, Stenger MB, Taylor LC, Wickwire PC, Wood SJ. "Functional task performance in astronauts and bed rest subjects." 2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013.

2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013. , Feb-2013

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Reschke MF, Kofman IS, Cerisano JM, Fisher E, Bloomberg JJ. "Postural responses following space flight compared with those observed following exposure to ground based analogs." 2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013.

2013 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Galveston, TX, February 12-14, 2013. , Feb-2013

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Ryder JW, Buxton RE, Goetchius E, Scott-Pandorf M, Hackney KJ, Fiedler J, Ploutz-Snyder RJ, Bloomberg JJ, Ploutz-Snyder LL. "Influence of muscle strength to weight ratio on functional task performance." Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013 Apr;113(4):911-21. Epub 2012 Sep 26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-012-2500-z ; PubMed PMID: 23011123 , Apr-2013
Project Title:  Physiological Factors Contributing to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance (Functional Task Test) Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2012 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 06/19/2008  
End Date: 05/05/2015  
Task Last Updated: 04/16/2012 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Bloomberg, Jacob J. Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division 
2101 NASA Parkway, SK272 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: jacob.j.bloomberg@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-0436  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Feeback, Daniel  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Feiveson, Alan  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Lee, Stuart  Wyle Laboratories/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Mulavara, Ajitkumar   USRA 
Peters, Brian  Wyle Labs/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Platts, Steven  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Reschke, Millard  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Ryder, Jeffrey  USRA 
Spiering, Barry  Wyle Labs/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Stenger, Michael  Wyle Labs/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Ploutz-Snyder, Lori  USRA 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
(2) OI:Risk of Orthostatic Intolerance during Re-Exposure to Gravity
(3) Sensorimotor (SM):Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft, Associated Systems and Immediate Vehicle Egress Due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alterations Associated with Space Flight
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) CV03:Is orthostatic intolerance a potential hazard?
(2) SM2.1:Determine the changes in sensorimotor function over the course of a mission and during recovery after landing (IRP Rev F)
(3) SM7.1:Determine if there are decrements in performance on functional tasks after long-duration spaceflight. Determine how changes in physiological function, exercise activity, and/or clinical data account for these decrements (IRP Rev F)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date changed to 5/5/2015 and Risk/Gaps changed per JSC MTL dtd 11/11/11 (Ed., 11/18/2011)

NOTE: End date changed to 3/17/2014 (previously 9/30/13) per JSC (2/2010)

Task Description: Exposure to space flight causes alterations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These changes can affect the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. The overall goal of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of critical mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. To achieve this goal we developed an interdisciplinary testing regimen (Functional Task Test, FTT) that evaluates both astronaut functional performance and related physiological changes. A set of functional tests were designed to test astronauts in tasks that simulate high priority exploration mission activities. These include ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, emergency vehicle egress, recovery from a fall and object translation tasks. Corresponding physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, orthostatic intolerance, upper- and lower-body muscle strength, power, endurance, control, and neuromuscular drive. Crewmembers were tested before and after Shuttle missions. Currently astronauts are participating in this study before and after ISS flights. Data were collected on two sessions before flight, on landing day (Shuttle only) and 1, 6 and 30 days after landing.

Using a multivariate regression model we will identify which physiological systems contribute the most to impaired performance on each functional test. This will allow us to identify the physiological systems that play the largest role in decrement in functional performance. Using this information we can then design and implement countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems most responsible for the altered functional performance associated with space flight.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research, which requires focused and constrained data gathering and analysis that is more appropriately obtained through a non-competitive proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This study will identify which physiological systems contribute the most to impaired performance on mission critical functional tasks. This will allow us to identify the physiological systems that play the largest roles in decrements in overall functional performance. Using this information we can design and implement countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems most responsible for the altered functional performance associated with space flight.

In terms of Earth benefits this research will provide a better understanding of the underlying physiological mechanisms that contribute to changes in functional performance. For example, in the elderly population activities of daily living are often impaired by mutifactorial physiological causes. The information obtained from this interdisciplinary study will aid in identifying the relative contributions of sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and muscle function on comprehensive performance outcomes. This has direct application in the design of clinical interventions and rehabilitation programs that can target specific systems responsible for decline in functional performance.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2012 
Task Progress: Summary of Progress

- To date we have completed data collection on 7 Shuttle crewmembers and 4 ISS crewmembers (13 planned).

- 7 additional ISS subjects in data collection phase.

- Completed all Shuttle crew individual data debriefs.

- Selected to be featured in the 2011 Annual Report for the Human Research Program.

- Completed and submitted Shuttle Interim FTT Report (79 pages).

- Presented Shuttle FTT data at the Human System Risk Board (March 28, 2012).

- To data have completed 2 peer reviewed papers and 23 abstracts/presentations

Summary of Preliminary Observations from Shuttle Subjects

1) Functional tests that required dynamic control of postural equilibrium to complete (Seat Egress and Walk, Recovery from Fall, Rock Translation, Jump Down) demonstrated the greatest postflight changes in performance. Functional Tests with reduced requirements for postural stability (Torque Generation, Ladder Climb) showed less reduction in performance. For these tests posture was stabilized while the task was being performed. In the Torque Generation Test posture was stabilized because the subject completed the task while gripping the hatch like wheel device. In the Ladder Climb Test postural instability was minimized because subjects performed the task with four points of stabilization (i.e. both hands and legs).

2) Sensorimotor tests sensitive to the vestibular component underlying postural and gait control showed the largest postflight alterations (Dynamic Posturography Test, Tandem Walk Test, Treadmill Locomotion/Dynamic Visual Acuity Test). Tests of fine motor control and force steadiness control did not change after space flight. Therefore, the observed changes in functional performance were linked to postflight alterations in vestibular function leading to decrement in performance for tasks with greater requirements for dynamic postural equilibrium control.

3) Astronauts showed postflight elevated heart rates and sympathovagal balance (an indication of the relative influence of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system on the control of heart rate) during the Recovery from Fall/Stand Test while parasympathetic activity was decreased. This result indicates a postflight shift toward sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal on R+0. Similarly, heart rate was consistently elevated during performance of all the other functional tests. There was no change in blood pressure at rest or during standing in the Recovery from Fall/Stand Test. There was also no change in plasma volume in this group of astronauts although previous investigators have reported that plasma volume is reduced after space flight. The lack of change in plasma volume for this study could have resulted from improved in-flight countermeasure compliance, stricter adherence to the fluid loading protocol, or medical intervention prior to testing. Importantly, the observations of elevated heart rate and altered autonomic responses during post-flight functional testing are more striking in that they are less likely to be linked solely to a decrease in plasma volume.

4) The muscle performance data indicate significant reductions in the leg press performance metrics of maximal isometric force, power, and total work. Bench press total work was also significantly impaired, although maximal isometric force and power were not significantly affected. No overall changes were noted for measurements of central activation or force steadiness. The muscle performance data show reductions in lower body muscle performance metrics and these alterations are likely contributors to impaired functional tasks that are ambulatory in nature. Interestingly, no changes in central activation capacity were detected. Therefore, impairments in muscle function in response to short-duration space flight are likely myocellular rather than neuromotor in nature.

5) Forward work includes completing data collection on ISS subjects (n=13). Once all the data are collected we will be able to create a multivariate regression model to describe the relationship between the physiological changes associated with space flight and decrement in functional task performance along with a comparison of recovery rates between short and long-duration crewmembers. This will allow is to identify the prime physiological factors that contribute most to alteration in functional task performance. This information will then be used to inform the design of targeted countermeasure systems to mitigate these physiological changes leading to improved task performance.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 08/03/2020)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Ryder JW, Buxton RE, Redd E, Scott-Pandorf M, Hackney KJ, Fiedler J, Ploutz-Snyder R, Bloomberg JJ, Ploutz-Snyder LL. "Analysis of skeletal muscle metrics as predictors of functional task performance." American College of Sports Medicine 58th Annual Meeting, Denver, CO, May 31-June 4, 2011.

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2011 May;43(5 Suppl):821. http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000402287.01913.47 , May-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Miller CA, Peters BT, Feiveson A, Bloomberg JJ. "Functional Data Analysis of Spaceflight-Induced Changes in Coordination and Phase in Head Pitch Acceleration during Treadmill Walking." Progress in Motor Control VIII Meeting, Cincinnati, OH, July 21-23, 2011.

Progress in Motor Control VIII Meeting, Cincinnati, OH, July 21- 23, 2011. http://homepages.uc.edu/~rileym/PMC/PMCVIIIPosterAbstracts.pdf , Jul-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Reschke MF, Fisher EA, Kofman IS, Cerisano JM, Harm DL, Bloomberg JJ. "Walk on floor eyes closed test: A unique test of spaceflight induced ataxia." Space Forum 2011 – Dedicated to the 50th Anniversary of the First Human Space Flight by Yury Gagarin, Moscow, Russia, October 18-21, 2011.

Space Forum 2011 – Dedicated to the 50th Anniversary of the First Human Space Flight by Yury Gagarin, Moscow, Russia, October 18-21, 2011. , Oct-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Reschke MF, Harm DL, Kofman IS, Wood SJ, Bloomberg JJ. "A simple postflight measure of postural ataxia in astronauts." Space Forum 2011 – Dedicated to the 50th Anniversary of the First Human Space Flight by Yury Gagarin, Moscow, Russia, October 18-21, 2011.

Space Forum 2011 – Dedicated to the 50th Anniversary of the First Human Space Flight by Yury Gagarin, Moscow, Russia, October 18-21, 2011. , Oct-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Reschke MF, Kofman IS, Cerisano JM, Fisher EA, Peters BT, Harm DL, Bloomberg JJ. "Jump-down performance alterations after space flight." The 32nd Annual International Gravitational Physiology Meeting and 27th Annual American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology Meeting, San Jose, CA, November 2-6, 2011.

Program and Abstracts. The 32nd Annual International Gravitational Physiology Meeting and 27th Annual American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology Meeting, San Jose, CA, November 2-6, 2011. p. 60-61. , Nov-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bloomberg JJ, Arzeno NM, Buxton RE, Feiveson AH, Kofman IS, Lee SMC, Miller CA, Mulavara AP, Peters BT, Phillips T, Platts SH, Ploutz-Snyder LL, Reschke MF, Ryder JW, Spiering BA, Stenger MB, Taylor LC, Wickwire PJ, Wood SJ. "Functional Task Test: 1) Sensorimotor changes associated with postflight alterations in astronaut functional task performance." 2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14–16, 2012.

2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14–16, 2012. , Feb-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Phillips TR, Arzeno NM, Stenger MB, Stuart SMC, Bloomberg JJ, Platts SH. "Functional Task Test: 2) Spaceflight-induced cardiovascular changes and recovery during NASA’s Functional Task Test." 2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14–16, 2012.

2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14–16, 2012. , Feb-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Ryder JW, Wickwire PJ, Buxton RE, Bloomberg JJ, Ploutz-Snyder L. "Functional Task Test: 3) Skeletal muscle performance adaptations to space flight." 2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14–16, 2012.

2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14–16, 2012. , Feb-2012

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Ploutz-Snyder L, Ryder J, Buxton R, Redd E, Scott-Pandorf M, Hackney K, Fiedler J, Ploutz-Snyder R, Bloomberg JJ. "Thresholds of muscle strength below which function is impaired." 2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14–16, 2012.

2012 NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, TX, February 14–16, 2012. , Feb-2012

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Arzeno NM, Stenger MB, Bloomberg JJ, Platts SH. "Spaceflight-induced cardiovascular changes and recovery during NASA’s Functional Task Test." Acta Astronautica. 2013 Nov;92(1):10-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2012.05.023 (originally reported as "in press" as of April 2012.) , Nov-2013
Project Title:  Physiological Factors Contributing to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance (Functional Task Test) Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2011 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 06/19/2008  
End Date: 05/05/2015  
Task Last Updated: 07/18/2011 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Bloomberg, Jacob J. Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division 
2101 NASA Parkway, SK272 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: jacob.j.bloomberg@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-0436  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Feeback, Daniel  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Feiveson, Alan  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Lee, Stuart  Wyle Laboratories/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Mulavara, Ajitkumar   USRA 
Peters, Brian  Wyle Labs/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Platts, Steven  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Reschke, Millard  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Ryder, Jeffrey  USRA 
Spiering, Barry  Wyle Labs/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Stenger, Michael  Wyle Labs/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Ploutz-Snyder, Lori  USRA 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Norsk, Peter  
Center Contact:  
Peter.norsk@nasa.gov 
Solicitation: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:
No. of PhD Candidates:
No. of Master's Candidates:
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:
No. of PhD Degrees:
No. of Master's Degrees:
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
(2) OI:Risk of Orthostatic Intolerance during Re-Exposure to Gravity
(3) Sensorimotor (SM):Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft, Associated Systems and Immediate Vehicle Egress Due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alterations Associated with Space Flight
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) CV03:Is orthostatic intolerance a potential hazard?
(2) SM2.1:Determine the changes in sensorimotor function over the course of a mission and during recovery after landing (IRP Rev F)
(3) SM7.1:Determine if there are decrements in performance on functional tasks after long-duration spaceflight. Determine how changes in physiological function, exercise activity, and/or clinical data account for these decrements (IRP Rev F)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date changed to 5/5/2015 and Risk/Gaps changed per JSC MTL dtd 11/11/11 (Ed., 11/18/2011)

NOTE: End date changed to 3/17/2014 (previously 9/30/13) per JSC (2/2010)

Task Description: Exposure to space flight causes alterations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These changes can affect the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. The overall goal of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of critical mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. To achieve this goal we developed an interdisciplinary testing regimen (Functional Task Test, FTT) that evaluates both astronaut functional performance and related physiological changes. A set of functional tests were designed to test astronauts in tasks that simulate high priority exploration mission activities. These include ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, emergency vehicle egress, recovery from a fall and object translation tasks. Corresponding physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, orthostatic intolerance, upper- and lower-body muscle strength, power, endurance, control, and neuromuscular drive. Crewmembers perform this integrated test regimen before and after short (Shuttle) and long-duration (ISS) space flight. Data are collected on two sessions before flight, on landing day (Shuttle only) and 1, 6 and 30 days after landing.

Using a multivariate regression model we will identify which physiological systems contribute the most to impaired performance on each functional test. This will allow us to identify the physiological systems that play the largest role in decrement in functional performance. Using this information we can then design and implement countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems most responsible for the altered functional performance associated with space flight.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research, which requires focused and constrained data gathering and analysis that is more appropriately obtained through a non-competitive proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This research will provide a better understanding of the underlying physiological mechanisms that contribute to changes in functional performance. In the elderly population activities of daily living are often impaired by mutifactorial physiological causes. The information obtained from this interdisciplinary study will aid in identifying the relative contributions of sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and muscle function on comprehensive performance outcomes. This has direct application in the design of clinical interventions and rehabilitation programs that can target specific systems responsible for decline in functional performance.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2011 
Task Progress: To date we have completed full sets of pre/postflight data collection on 6 Shuttle crewmembers and 3 ISS crewmembers. We have collected preflight on three more ISS crewmembers. Preliminary results from both Shuttle and ISS crewmembers indicate decrement in performance of the functional tasks after both short and long-duration space flight with associated changes in cardiovascular, sensorimotor and muscle performance measures. Ongoing data collection continues to improve the statistical power required to map changes in functional task performance to alterations in physiological systems. We have also completed five astronaut data debriefs.

During this review period 13 presentations/abstracts related this project were completed at four international scientific meetings. These include:

18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX April 11-15, 2011.

8th Symposium on the Role of the Vestibular Organs in Space, Houston, TX, April 8-10, 2011.

American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting, Denver, CO, May 31-June 4, 2011.

82nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association, Anchorage, AK, May 9-12, 2011.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 08/03/2020)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bloomberg JJ, Arzeno N, Buxton RE, Feiveson AH, Kofman I, Lawrence E, Lee SMC, Mulavara AP, Nash R, Peters BT, Platts SH, Ploutz-Snyder L, Reschke MF, Ryder J, Spiering BA, Stenger MB, Wood S. "Defining the physiological factors that contribute to postflight changes in functional performance." NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, Texas, February 3-5, 2010.

NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, Houston, Texas, February 3-5, 2010. http://www.dsls.usra.edu/meetings/hrp2010/pdf/Integrated/1054Bloomberg.pdf , Feb-2010

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Spiering BA, Lee SMC, Mulavara AP, Bentley JR, Buxton RE, Lawrence EL, Sinka J, Guilliams ME, Ploutz-Snyder LL, Bloomberg JJ. "Reliability of a test battery designed for quickly and safely assessing diverse indices of neuromuscular function." American College of Sports Medicine 57th Annual Meeting, Baltimore, MD, June 2-5, 2010.

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2010 May;42(5 Suppl 1):80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000385570.74150.74 , May-2010

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Stenger MB, Arzeno NM, Bloomberg JJ, Platts SH. "Validation of cardiovascular parameters during NASA’s functional task test." American College of Sports Medicine 57th Annual Meeting, Baltimore, MD, June 2-5, 2010.

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2010 May;42(5 Suppl 1):536-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000385318.34346.48 , May-2010

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Arzeno NM, Stenger MB, Bloomberg JJ, Platts SH. "Spaceflight-induced cardiovascular changes and recovery during NASA’s Functional Task Test." 18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX April 11-15, 2011.

18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX April 11-15, 2011. , Apr-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bloomberg JJ, Lawrence EL, Arzeno NM, Buxton RE, Feiveson AH, Kofman IS, Lee SMC, Mulavara AP, Peters BT, Platts SH, Ploutz-Snyder LL, Reschke MF, Ryder JW, Spiering BA, Stenger MB, Taylor LC, Wood SJ. "The Functional Task Test (FTT): An interdisciplinary testing protocol to investigate the factors underlying changes in astronaut functional performance." 18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011.

18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011. , Apr-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Buxton RE, Spiering BA, Ryder JW, Ploutz-Snyder LL, Bloomberg JJ. "Effects of short- and long-duration space flight on neuromuscular function." 18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011.

18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15. , Apr-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Fisher EA, Reschke MF, Kofman IS, Cerisano JM, Lawrence EL, Peters BT, Bloomberg JJ, Harm DL. "The walk on floor eyes closed tandem step test as a quantitative measure of ataxia after space flight." 18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011.

18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011. , Apr-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Kofman IS, Reschke MF, Cerisano JM, Fisher EA, Lawrence EL, Peters BT, Bloomberg JJ. "Changes in jump-down performance after space flight: Short- and long-term adaptation." 18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011.

18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011. , Apr-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Reschke MF, Kofman IS, Fisher EA, Cerisano JM, Lawrence EL, Peters BT, Harm DL, Kulecz W, Mulavara AP, Fiedler MJ, Bloomberg JJ. "Postflight quiet stance stability of astronauts following recovery from a simulated fall." 18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011.

18th IAA Humans in Space Symposium, Houston, TX, April 11-15, 2011. , Apr-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Arzeno NM, Lee SMC, Stenger MB, Lawrence EL, Platts SH, Bloomberg JJ. "Heart rate response during mission-critical tasks after space flight." American College of Sports Medicine 58th Annual Meeting, Denver, CO, May 31-June 4, 2011.

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2011 May;43(5 Suppl):820. http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000402284.13108.1c , May-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Peters BT, Brady RA, Miller CA, Lawrence EM, Mulavara AP, Bloomberg JJ. "Reduction in dynamic visual acuity reveals gaze control changes following spaceflight." 8th Symposium on the Role of the Vestibular Organs in Space, Houston, TX, April 8-10, 2011.

8th Symposium on the Role of the Vestibular Organs in Space, Houston, TX, April 8-10, 2011. http://www.dsls.usra.edu/meetings/IAA/vestibular/pdf/3006.pdf , Apr-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Reschke MF, Fisher EA, Kofman IS, Cerisano JM, Harm DL, Peters BT, Bloomberg JJ. "Walk on floor eyes closed test as a measure of postflight ataxia." 8th Symposium on the Role of the Vestibular Organs in Space, Houston, TX, April 8-10, 2011.

8th Symposium on the Role of the Vestibular Organs in Space, Houston, TX, April 8-10, 2011. http://www.dsls.usra.edu/meetings/IAA/vestibular/pdf/3051.pdf , Apr-2011

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Peters BT, Brady RA, Miller CA, Mulavara AP, Cohen HS, Wood SJ, Bloomberg JJ. "Dynamic visual acuity: a functionally relevant research tool." 82nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association, Anchorage, AK, May 8-12, 2011.

Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 2011 Mar; 82(3):243-4. , Mar-2011

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Spiering BA, Lee SM, Mulavara AP, Bentley JR, Buxton RE, Lawrence EL, Sinka J, Guilliams ME, Ploutz-Snyder LL, Bloomberg JJ. "Test battery designed to quickly and safely assess diverse indices of neuromuscular function after unweighting." Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2011 Feb;25(2):545-55. PMID: 21217531 ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181f56780 , Feb-2011
Project Title:  Physiological Factors Contributing to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance (Functional Task Test) Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2009 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 06/19/2008  
End Date: 03/17/2014  
Task Last Updated: 04/09/2009 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Bloomberg, Jacob J. Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division 
2101 NASA Parkway, SK272 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: jacob.j.bloomberg@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-0436  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Feeback, Daniel  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Feiveson, Alan  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Lee, Stuart  Wyle Laboratories/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Mulavara, Ajitkumar   USRA 
Peters, Brian  Wyle Labs/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Platts, Steven  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Reschke, Millard  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Ryder, Jeffrey  USRA 
Spiering, Barry  Wyle Labs/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Stenger, Michael  Wyle Labs/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Ploutz-Snyder, Lori  USRA 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Meck, J@n  
Center Contact: 281-244-5405 
janice.v.meck@nasa.gov 
Solicitation: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: Shuttle/ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
(2) OI:Risk of Orthostatic Intolerance during Re-Exposure to Gravity
(3) Sensorimotor (SM):Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft, Associated Systems and Immediate Vehicle Egress Due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alterations Associated with Space Flight
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) CV03:Is orthostatic intolerance a potential hazard?
(2) SM2.1:Determine the changes in sensorimotor function over the course of a mission and during recovery after landing (IRP Rev F)
(3) SM7.1:Determine if there are decrements in performance on functional tasks after long-duration spaceflight. Determine how changes in physiological function, exercise activity, and/or clinical data account for these decrements (IRP Rev F)
Flight Assignment/Project Notes: ISS

NOTE: End date changed to 3/17/2014 (previously 9/30/13) per JSC (2/2010)

Task Description: During space flight astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to microgravity. These physiological changes include sensorimotor disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning, loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes lead to disruption in the ability to ambulate and perform functional tasks during the initial reintroduction to a gravitational environment and may cause significant impairments in performance of operational tasks immediately following landing on a planetary surface. To date, changes in functional performance that result from physiological changes have not been systematically documented. The objective of this study is to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to performance of functional tests that are representative of critical mission tasks for lunar and Mars operations. We will test astronauts on an integrated suite of functional and physiological tests before and after short and long-duration space flight. This study will 1) identify functional tasks and physiological changes that relate to and are predictive of human performance following space flight on return to planetary gravity; 2) map physiological changes to alterations in functional performance and 3) aid in the design of countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems responsible for impaired functional performance.

The functional test battery was designed to address high priority tasks identified by the Constellation program as critical for mission success. The set of functional tests making up the FTT include the: 1) Seat Egress and Walk Test, 2) Ladder Climb Test, 3) Recovery from Fall/Stand Test, 4) Rock Translation Test, 5) Jump Down Test, 6) Torque Generation Test, and 7) Construction Activity Board Test. Corresponding physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, orthostatic intolerance, upper and lower body muscle strength, power, fatigue, force control and neuromuscular drive. Crewmembers will perform both functional and physiological tests before and after short (Shuttle) and long-duration (ISS) space flight. Data will be collected on R+0 (Shuttle only), R+1, R+6 and R+30.

Using a multivariate regression model we will identify which physiological systems contribute the most to impaired performance on each functional test. This will allow us to identify the physiological systems that play the largest role in decrement in functional performance. Using this information we can then design and implement countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems most responsible for the altered functional performance associated with space flight.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research, which requires focused and constrained data gathering and analysis that is more appropriately obtained through a non-competitive proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: This research will provide a better understanding of the underlying physiological mechanisms that contribute to changes in functional performance. In the elderly population activities of daily living are often impaired by mutifactorial physiological causes. The information obtained from this interdisciplinary study will aid in identifying the relative contributions of sensorimotor, cardiovascular and muscle function on comprehensive performance outcomes. This has direct application in the design of clinical interventions and rehabilitation programs that can target specific systems responsible for decline in functional performance.

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2009 
Task Progress: We have conducted a series of studies to investigate the reliability of a subset of test measures that were designed specifically for this study. Two studies are summarized below:

Functional Tests

The objective of this pilot study was to examine the reliability of our set of functional tests. To achieve this objective, 14 normal subjects were tested on the battery of functional tests on three separate sessions with a preceding familiarization session at least 2 days apart to determine if the performance metrics obtained from these functional tests display variations between the sessions that are within limits to detect a change after space flight. The duration of the reliability study was seven weeks and a total of 56 test sessions were completed. In addition to the primary data measures collected during the sessions, subjects were equipped with hardware that recorded electrocardiogram (EKG), blood pressure, electromyography (EMG), and body position data. These functional tests will become part of a larger suite of tests that include corresponding physiological measures that include assessments of vestibular function, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, postural and locomotor stability, plasma volume, orthostatic intolerance, upper and lower body muscle strength, power, fatigue, control and neuromuscular drive.

The following functional tests were conducted:

1) Seat Egress and Walk Test

The ability to egress from a seat, ambulate and avoid obstacles following landing will be assessed with the Seat Egress and Walk Test. For this test subjects were required to unbuckle a harness while in a seat and stand up. Testing occurred under two initial conditions: 1) with the seat upright; 2) with the seat positioned with its back to the floor. Immediately following egress from the seat, subjects walked through the obstacle course. After negotiating the portal and pylons, subjects walked up and down a sloped surface inclined at 18 degrees. The primary performance metric was time to complete the course.

2) Recovery from Fall/Stand Test

Impairment in the ability to get up from a prone position is one of the strongest independent risk factors associated with serious fall related injuries. For this test, subjects, were asked to lie down on a mat face down and then asked to stand up again as quickly as possible when a start command was given. The primary performance metric was time elapsed between presentation of the start command and the completion of the stand.

We have integrated into this test, a three-minute Stand Test designed to assess orthostatic intolerance in an operational context and gain physiological data describing underlying changes in cardiovascular function that contribute to orthostatic intolerance. Immediately upon standing up, subjects performed the Stand Test by taking a step onto the solid floor and maintained a quiet standing position for three minutes. Previous results from landing day tilt/stand tests indicate that three minutes should provide a reasonable measure of orthostatic tolerance while remaining within a non-syncopal period even for long-duration crewmembers. Continuous blood pressure was acquired with a Portapres (TNO Medical, Netherlands) ambulatory blood pressure monitor. High fidelity, 12-lead EKG was acquired with a Holter monitor (Mortara Instrument, Milwaukee, WI).

3) Rock Translation Test

While on the planetary surface astronauts will be required to carry objects (tools, equipment, rock samples) from one point to another. To simulate this task requirement subjects picked up one of three weights (6, 10, 20 lbs) that have handles to grip (CorBall, Power Systems Inc. Knoxville, TN) and carried the weight a distance of eight feet and placed it in a receptacle positioned at twenty inches above the floor. This procedure was repeated until all three weights were individually transferred to the receptacle. Then the subject returned each weight one-by-one to its original location. The primary performance metric was time to complete the entire task.

4) Torque Generation Test

Performance on the Torque Generation Test was assessed with the use of the BTE PrimusRS System (BTE Technologies, Hanover, MD). A wheel attachment was affixed to the PrimusRS to simulate a hatch-opening task. Subjects stood on the floor while performing the task under both isometric and isotonic conditions. For the isometric evaluation the wheel attachment was fixed and subjects were asked to apply as much torque as possible to rotate the wheel assembly. The PrimusRS recorded the torques during the session. In the isotonic portion of the assessment, a constant resistance was applied to the wheel attachment and the wheel was allowed to rotate. The resistance applied by the system was equal to 50% of the average peak torque obtained from the isometric trial. The subject was asked to turn the wheel as quickly as possible for a total time of 20 seconds. The primary performance metrics were peak torque and number of wheel turns in 20 seconds.

5) Ladder Climb Test

The ability to climb a ladder is an essential functional task related to entering or exiting into a planetary landing vehicle. Current landing vehicle designs (i.e. Lunar Surface Access Module) include ladders that extend from 20-28 rungs, so ladder climbing will be an early task performed by astronauts soon after landing on a planetary surface. To gain a better understanding of ladder climbing ability, we developed the Ladder Climb Test. To perform the Ladder Climb Test, subjects climbed a passive treadmill ladder (Jacobs Ladder, LLC, North Tonawanda, NY) at a self-generated pace until they completed 40 rungs. The primary performance metric was time to completion.

6) Construction Activity Board Test

To assess changes in the ability to perform manual assembly and repair tasks each subject completed a standard EVA training task. This task has been used previously to evaluate space suit designs and is used to train astronauts participating in actual EVA activities. While standing, subjects performed a variety of standard construction and assembly tasks including connecting hoses to receptacles. Subjects also used a cordless power tool to tighten bolts on a handle assembly. The primary performance metric was time to complete the entire set of manual tasks.

7) Jump Down Test

Astronauts may be required to jump down from landing vehicles, habitats and on uneven terrain during exploratory extravehicular activities (EVAs). Changes in this ability can lead to increased incidence of falling. Given the previously described changes in control of jumping and landing and the highly relevant operational nature of this task we designed a functional test to investigate jump down performance.

During the Jump Down Test, subjects used a two-footed hop to jump from a height of 30 cm and landed on a force plate to measure the peak vertical impact force on landing. (Kistler, model 9286A, Kistler Instruments, Winterthur, Switzerland). Force transducers, one under each foot, were used to determine the time that the subject leaves the platform. EMG was collected using a system developed by Delsys, Inc. (Bagnoli EMG systems, Delsys Inc., Boston, MA). Electrodes were placed on the major postural muscles (medial and lateral gastrocnemius, soleus, and anterior tibialis) on the subject’s left leg.

The first performance metric for the Jump Down Test was the Settling Time. This metric provides a measure of how quickly the postural control system can bring the body to steady state after impact following the jump. The other performance metric was the peak resultant force following landing. These metrics provide an overall indication of the efficacy of intersegmental coordination and muscular control mechanisms to produce an appropriate response to compensate for impact forces following landing. The two main EMG parameters obtained were: 1) the preparatory response latency with respect to the time the subject leaves the platform and, 2) Functional Stretch Reflex latency with respect to force plate impact. This test was repeated for total of three trials.

Conclusions

1) The main performance metrics obtained from the FTT functional tests were within limits to detect a change associated with space flight. Therefore, the functional test performance metrics are reliable indicators of postflight performance.

2) The signals obtained from the body motion sensors, EMG electrodes and the force plate were within the physiological range expected and the signal quality is such that the desired parameters can be extracted for analysis.

3) Excellent quality blood pressure data were obtained for the portions of the FTT that were designed to evaluate an orthostatic challenge. Additionally, heart rate data, and its derivatives were satisfactorily obtained for all but the Torque Generation Test.

Muscle Performance Tests

The goal of this pilot study was to examine the reliability of the muscle performance measures used in this study. Ten subjects completed a battery of lower- and upper-body neuromuscular performance tests on three separate occasions, with each session separated by at least 48 hours. The battery consisted of tests in the following order: 1) knee extension central activation; 2) knee extension force steadiness; 3) leg press maximal strength; 4) leg press maximal power; 5) leg press power endurance; 6) bench press maximal strength; 7) bench press force steadiness; 8) bench press maximal power; and 9) bench press power endurance. We determined that the muscle performance test battery could quickly and reliably assess diverse indices of neuromuscular performance.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 08/03/2020)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Spiering BA, Lee SMC, Mulavara AP, Bentley JR, Nash RE, Sinka, J, Bloomberg JJ. "Using maximal isometric force to determine the optimal load for measuring dynamic muscle power." To be presented at the American College of Sports Medicine Meeting, Seattle, WA, May 27-30, 2009.

American College of Sports Medicine Proceedings, May 2009. , May-2009

Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Bloomberg JJ, Feeback DL, Feiveson AH, Lee SMC, Mulavara AP, Peters BT, Platts SH, Reschke MF, Ryder J, Spiering BA, Stenger MB, Wood S, Lawrence E, Arzeno N. "Physiological factors contributing to postflight changes in functional performance." NASA HRP Investigators’ Workshop, South Shore Harbour, League City TX, Feb. 2-4, 2009.

Proceedings from the NASA Human Research Program Investigators’ Workshop, February 2009. , Feb-2009

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Spiering BA, Lee SMC, Mulavara AP, Bentley JR, Nash RE, Lawrence EL, Sinka J, Guilliams ME. Ploutz-Snyder L, Bloomberg JJ. "Test battery that quickly assesses diverse indices of neuromuscular function" Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, In review, April 2009. Expected publication October 2009. , Apr-2009
Project Title:  Physiological Factors Contributing to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance (Functional Task Test) Reduce
Fiscal Year: FY 2008 
Division: Human Research 
Research Discipline/Element:
HRP HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Start Date: 06/19/2008  
End Date: 09/30/2013  
Task Last Updated: 02/19/2009 
Download report in PDF pdf
Principal Investigator/Affiliation:   Bloomberg, Jacob J. Ph.D. / NASA Johnson Space Center 
Address:  Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division 
2101 NASA Parkway, SK272 
Houston , TX 77058-3607 
Email: jacob.j.bloomberg@nasa.gov 
Phone: 281-483-0436  
Congressional District: 36 
Web:  
Organization Type: NASA CENTER 
Organization Name: NASA Johnson Space Center 
Joint Agency:  
Comments:  
Co-Investigator(s)
Affiliation: 
Feeback, Daniel  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Feiveson, Alan  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Lee, Stuart  Wyle Laboratories/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Mulavara, Ajitkumar   USRA 
Paloski, William  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Peters, Brian  Wyle Labs/NASA JSC 
Platts, Steven  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Reschke, Millard  NASA Johnson Space Center 
Ryder, Jeffrey  USRA 
Spiering, Barry  Wyle Labs/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Stenger, Michael  Wyle Labs/NASA Johnson Space Center 
Project Information: Grant/Contract No. Directed Research 
Responsible Center: NASA JSC 
Grant Monitor: Meck, J@n  
Center Contact: 281-244-5405 
janice.v.meck@nasa.gov 
Solicitation: Directed Research 
Grant/Contract No.: Directed Research 
Project Type: FLIGHT 
Flight Program: ISS 
TechPort: No 
No. of Post Docs:  
No. of PhD Candidates:  
No. of Master's Candidates:  
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:  
No. of PhD Degrees:  
No. of Master's Degrees:  
No. of Bachelor's Degrees:  
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HHC:Human Health Countermeasures
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Muscle:Risk of Impaired Performance Due to Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength and Endurance
(2) OI:Risk of Orthostatic Intolerance during Re-Exposure to Gravity
(3) Sensorimotor (SM):Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft, Associated Systems and Immediate Vehicle Egress Due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alterations Associated with Space Flight
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) CV03:Is orthostatic intolerance a potential hazard?
(2) SM2.1:Determine the changes in sensorimotor function over the course of a mission and during recovery after landing (IRP Rev F)
(3) SM7.1:Determine if there are decrements in performance on functional tasks after long-duration spaceflight. Determine how changes in physiological function, exercise activity, and/or clinical data account for these decrements (IRP Rev F)
Task Description: During space flight astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to microgravity. These physiological changes include sensorimotor disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning, loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes lead to disruption in the ability to ambulate and perform functional tasks during the initial reintroduction to a gravitational environment and may cause significant impairments in performance of operational tasks immediately following landing on a planetary surface. To date changes in functional performance that result from physiological changes have not been systematically documented. The objectives of this proposal are: 1) develop and validate a set of functional tests that are representative of critical mission tasks for lunar and Mars operations; 2) identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to changes in performance of the functional tests. We will test astronauts on an integrated suite of functional and physiological tests before and after short and long duration space flight. This study will 1) identify the critical mission tasks that may be impacted by alterations in physiological responses; 2) map physiological changes to alterations in functional performance and 3) aid in the design countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems responsible for impaired functional performance.

Rationale for HRP Directed Research: This research is directed because it contains highly constrained research, which requires focused and constrained data gathering and analysis that is more appropriately obtained through a non-competitive proposal.

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: 0

Task Progress & Bibliography Information FY2008 
Task Progress: New project for FY2008.

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 08/03/2020)  Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
 None in FY 2008