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Fiscal Year: FY 2017  Task Last Updated:  01/24/2018 
PI Name: Salas, Eduardo  Ph.D. 
Project Title: Using Real-Time Lexical Indicators to Detect Performance Decrements in Spaceflight Teams: A Methodology to Dynamically Monitor Cognitive, Emotional, and Social Mechanisms That Influence Performance 
   
Division Name: Human Research 
Program/Discipline--
Element/Subdiscipline:
NSBRI--Neurobehavioral and Psychosocial Factors Team 
 
Joint Agency Name:   TechPort:  Yes 
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
 (2) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed02:We need to identify and validate measures to monitor behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions to determine acceptable thresholds for these measures (IRP Rev F)
 (2) BMed03:We need to identify and quantify the key threats to and promoters of mission relevant behavioral health and performance during autonomous, long duration and/or long distance exploration missions (IRP Rev F)
 (3) Team Gap 02:We need to identify a set of validated measures, based on the key indicators of team function, to effectively monitor and measure team health and performance fluctuations during autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Space Biology Element: None
Space Biology Cross-Element Discipline: None
Space Biology Special Category: None
PI Email: eduardo.salas@rice.edu  Fax:   
PI Organization Type: UNIVERSITY  Phone: 713-348-3917  
Organization Name: Rice University 
PI Address 1: Department of Psychology 
PI Address 2: 6100 Main Street MS25 
PI Web Page:  
City: Houston  State: TX 
Zip Code: 77005  Congressional District: 
Comments: NOTE: Previous affiliation was University of Central Florida, until mid-2015  
Project Type: GROUND  Solicitation:  2012 Crew Health NNJ12ZSA002N 
Start Date: 08/01/2013  End Date:  05/31/2017 
No. of Post Docs: No. of PhD Degrees: 
No. of PhD Candidates: No. of Master' Degrees: 
No. of Master's Candidates: No. of Bachelor's Degrees: 
No. of Bachelor's Candidates: Monitoring Center:  NSBRI 
Contact Monitor:   Contact Phone:   
Contact Email:  
Flight Program:  
Flight Assignment: NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/18/17)

NOTE: End date changed to 5/31/2017 per NSBRI (Ed., 2/21/17)

NOTE: End date changed to 1/31/2017 per NSBRI (Ed., 8/31/15)

NOTE: End date is now 7/31/2016 (previously 11/30/2014) per NSBRI (Ed., 12/8/14)

NOTE: End date is now 11/30/2014 per NSBRI (Ed., 7/15/14)

 

Key Personnel Changes/Previous PI:  
COI Name (Institution): Driskell, James  Ph.D. ( Florida Maxima Corp. ) 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-NBPF03402 
Performance Goal No.:  
Performance Goal Text:

 

Task Description: Future exploratory long-duration missions will incorporate a crew of six on a mission length of approximately 2.5 years. Challenges include the requirement for the crew to function autonomously, under significant communication delays, and with the potential for increased crew and interpersonal friction or tension. The specific aims of this research are to (1) develop a methodology to assess cognitive and emotional state at a distance though analysis of spontaneous verbal output in real-time communications and (2) test the feasibility of a real-time assessment tool, STRESSnet, to detect cognitive performance deficits, stress, fatigue, anxiety, and depression in the spaceflight operational setting.

Because the health and well-being of crew members directly affects mission success, it is important to track cognitive/emotional changes that may indicate a deficit. One problem with many existing assessment methods is that most require direct observation of behavior or performance or self-assessment by a pen and paper-type instrument. The requirement to assess individual and team functioning at a distance suggests the potential efficacy of a methodology to assess cognitive and emotional state in real-time from ongoing or spontaneous verbal output. The basic premise of this work is that spontaneous verbal output provides a natural and valid indicator of basic cognitive processes. Natural word use is not prone to the typical limitations of self-report measurements. That is, natural language use is less subject to social desirability bias, and can be derived in real-time without interfering with the cognitive processes being measured, and without interrupting crew performance. Moreover, natural word use is reliable and consistent across time and context, and can be meaningfully measured in individuals and teams.

STRESSnet is a lexical analysis tool designed to provide a non-obstrusive means of detecting stress and related deficits in long-duration spaceflight through the assessment of spontaneous verbal output in real-time crew communications. The research builds on existing work on text and sentiment analysis; however, STRESSnet is unique in that (1) it is specifically designed to assess stress and related cognitive/emotional states, (2) we draw on existing astronaut communications and mission logs to develop a lexicon that includes terms unique to this environment, and (3) we developed STRESSnet with the specific goal of application as a tool to assess user state and provide automatic schedule recommendations for crew work/leisure activities to counter identified deficits.

This report summarizes data derived from testing STRESSnet in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) 3 campaign. In summary, the HERA 3 data results are consistent with and support the results observed in the HERA 1 and HERA 2 campaigns. Our overall research goals are to: (1) Demonstrate that the lexical indicator measure (STRESSnet) correlates with existing cognate pen-and-paper measures of stress. (2) Demonstrate that the lexical indicator measure (STRESSnet) is sensitive to differences in operational variability, such as levels of workload or stress. (3) Demonstrate that the lexical indicator measure (STRESSnet) is sensitive to other variables of interest, such as within-group or between-group differences.

The HERA 3 data described in the following sections indicate that the primary STRESSnet lexical measures of Social Impairment, Anxiety, Cognitive Load, and Attentional Focus were consistent with pen-and-paper measures of these same constructs. Negative affect as measured by Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) was very low across Campaign 3 missions and this lack of variability resulted in inconsistent relationships with lexical measures of negative emotion. Second, STRESSnet measures for each primary facet consistently differentiate between high and low workload days in HERA. Third, STRESSnet measures were sensitive to differences in the type of communications (e.g., task-oriented vs. non-task oriented communications). Fourth, using STRESSnet measures of anger and cognitive anxiety, we were able to identify a reported elevated episode of anger in one mission, demonstrating the utility of this approach for diagnosing crew stress and well-being during long duration spaceflight.

 

Rationale for HRP Directed Research:

 

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: Because the health and well-being of crew members directly affects mission success, it is important to track cognitive and emotional changes that may indicate a deficit. The requirement to assess individual and team functioning at a distance suggests the potential efficacy of a methodology to assess cognitive and emotional state in real-time from ongoing or spontaneous verbal output. The basic premise of this work is that spontaneous verbal output provides a natural and valid indicator of basic cognitive processes. Natural word use is not prone to the typical limitations of self-report measurements, which include social desirability bias, and it can be derived in real-time without interfering with the cognitive processes being measured, and without interrupting crew performance. Moreover, natural word use is reliable and consistent across time and context, and can be meaningfully measured in individuals and teams.

The major accomplishments of this research project include (1) the development of a theoretical model of cognitive performance deficits, stress, fatigue, and anxiety in spaceflight based on existing research on lexical analysis and language usage in astronauts, (2) the development of a lexical analysis tool, STRESSnet, to unobtrusively track and assess stress in individuals and teams, and (3) the implementation and empirical testing of this approach in HERA1, HERA2, HERA3. The STRESSnet tool will permit dynamic, unobtrusive detection of stress and related cognitive deficits during spaceflight, and many Earth-based applications. It is expected that a real-time assessment and graphical display of stress effects, as well as measures of fatigue, mood, and team functioning drawn from ongoing verbal or textual communications, could be used in healthcare, military, education, law enforcement, and many other workplace applications. It also has the potential to contribute to the growing market for sentiment analysis tools in social media and online communications.

 

Task Progress: The Year 1 tasking was to conduct a proof-of-concept study to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach in the HERA 1 analog. This was accomplished, demonstrating that (a) lexical measures can distinguish between high stress and nominal stress in HERA, (b) these measures are consistent with traditional pen and paper measures of stress, and (c) they show sensitivity to variations in stress levels (documented in the Year 1 technical report). Year 2 research efforts focused on extensive development of the lexical analysis tool, STRESSnet, that is specifically tailored to assess stress effects in the LDSF (long duration space flight) environment. This included the methodological development of the STRESSnet program and corresponding lexical dictionaries (documented in the Year 2 Annual Report).

Year 2 tasks also included data collection and analysis testing this approach in the HERA 2 campaign.

Year 3 tasks included the HERA 3 campaign data collection and analysis. The project deliverables include: (1) STRESSnet program code, (2) validation data from three HERA campaigns: HERA1, HERA2, HERA3, (3) dictionaries of searchable terms that could be used by NASA for nonintrusive detection of performance-relevant changes in cognitive, emotional, and social interaction, and (4) Scientific reports describing the use of lexical measures to assess stress-related deficits in spaceflight.

 

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 04/02/2019) Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Driskell T, Driskell JE, Burke CS, Salas E. "Team roles: A review and integration." Small Group Research. 2017 Aug 1;48(4):482-511. https://doi.org/10.1177/1046496417711529 , Aug-2017
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Driskell T, Salas E, Driskell JE. "Teams in extreme environments: Alterations in team development and teamwork." Human Resource Management Review. 2018 Dec;28(4):434-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2017.01.002 [originally reported in late 2017 as "2017 Feb 13 Available online. In press, corrected proof"] , Dec-2018
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Marlow SL, Lacerenza CN, Salas E. "Communication in virtual teams: A conceptual framework and research agenda." Human Resource Management Review. 2017 Dec;27(4):575-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2016.12.005 , Dec-2017
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Driskell JE, Salas E, Driskell T. "Foundations of teamwork and collaboration." American Psychologist. 2018 May-Jun;73(4):334-48. https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000241 ; PubMed PMID: 29792452 , May-2018
Books/Book Chapters Salas E, Vessey WB, Landon LB, editors. "Team dynamics over time." Ed. E. Salas, W.B. Vessey, L.B. Landon. Bingley, UK: Emerald Publishing, 2017. 352 p. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1534-0856201618 , Aug-2017
Books/Book Chapters Salas E, Rico R, Passmore J, editors. "The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of the Psychology of Team Working and Collaborative Processes." Ed. E. Salas, R. Rico, J. Passmore. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2017. 640 p. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118909997 , Apr-2017
Books/Book Chapters Salas E, Reyes DL, Woods AL. "The assessment of team performance: Observations and needs." in "Innovative assessment of collaboration." Ed. A.A. Von Davier, M. Zhu, P.C. Kyllonen. New York: Springer Verlag, p. 21-36, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-33261-1_2 , Apr-2017
Books/Book Chapters Dinh JV, Salas E. "Factors that influence teamwork." in "The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of the Psychology of Team Working and Collaborative Processes." Ed. E. Salas, R. Rico, J. Passmore. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2017. p. 15-42. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118909997.ch2 , Mar-2017
Books/Book Chapters Dietz A, Driskell JE, Sierra MJ, Weaver SJ, Driskell T, Salas E. "Teamwork under stress." in "The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of the Psychology of Team Working and Collaborative Processes." Ed. E. Salas, R. Rico, J. Passmore. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2017. p. 297-316. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118909997.ch13 , Mar-2017
Books/Book Chapters Driskell JE, Salas E. "Sustaining individual motivation in high-demand team environments." in "Individual Motivation within Groups : Social Loafing and Motivation Gains in Work, Academic, and Sports Teams." Ed. S. Karau. San Diego: Academic Press, 2018. ISBN: 978-0128498675, Dec-2018
Books/Book Chapters Driskell T, Driskell JE, Salas E. "Lexicon as a predictor of team dynamics." in "Team Dynamics over Time. (Research on Managing Groups and Teams, Volume 18)." Ed. E. Salas, B. Vessey, L. Landon. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing, 2017. p. 231-257. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/S1534-085620160000018010 , Aug-2017
Download in PDF pdf     
Fiscal Year: FY 2016  Task Last Updated:  04/13/2016 
PI Name: Salas, Eduardo  Ph.D. 
Project Title: Using Real-Time Lexical Indicators to Detect Performance Decrements in Spaceflight Teams: A Methodology to Dynamically Monitor Cognitive, Emotional, and Social Mechanisms That Influence Performance 
   
Division Name: Human Research 
Program/Discipline--
Element/Subdiscipline:
NSBRI--Neurobehavioral and Psychosocial Factors Team 
 
Joint Agency Name:   TechPort:  Yes 
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
 (2) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed02:We need to identify and validate measures to monitor behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions to determine acceptable thresholds for these measures (IRP Rev F)
 (2) BMed03:We need to identify and quantify the key threats to and promoters of mission relevant behavioral health and performance during autonomous, long duration and/or long distance exploration missions (IRP Rev F)
 (3) Team Gap 02:We need to identify a set of validated measures, based on the key indicators of team function, to effectively monitor and measure team health and performance fluctuations during autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Space Biology Element: None
Space Biology Cross-Element Discipline: None
Space Biology Special Category: None
PI Email: eduardo.salas@rice.edu  Fax:   
PI Organization Type: UNIVERSITY  Phone: 713-348-3917  
Organization Name: Rice University 
PI Address 1: Department of Psychology 
PI Address 2: 6100 Main Street MS25 
PI Web Page:  
City: Houston  State: TX 
Zip Code: 77005  Congressional District: 
Comments: NOTE: Previous affiliation was University of Central Florida, until mid-2015  
Project Type: GROUND  Solicitation:  2012 Crew Health NNJ12ZSA002N 
Start Date: 08/01/2013  End Date:  05/31/2017 
No. of Post Docs: No. of PhD Degrees: 
No. of PhD Candidates: No. of Master' Degrees: 
No. of Master's Candidates: No. of Bachelor's Degrees: 
No. of Bachelor's Candidates: Monitoring Center:  NSBRI 
Contact Monitor:   Contact Phone:   
Contact Email:  
Flight Program:  
Flight Assignment: NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/18/17)

NOTE: End date changed to 5/31/2017 per NSBRI (Ed., 2/21/17)

NOTE: End date changed to 1/31/2017 per NSBRI (Ed., 8/31/15)

NOTE: End date is now 7/31/2016 (previously 11/30/2014) per NSBRI (Ed., 12/8/14)

NOTE: End date is now 11/30/2014 per NSBRI (Ed., 7/15/14)

 

Key Personnel Changes/Previous PI:  
COI Name (Institution): Driskell, James   ( Florida Maxima Corp. ) 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-NBPF03402 
Performance Goal No.:  
Performance Goal Text:

 

Task Description: Future exploratory long-duration missions will incorporate a crew of six on a mission length of approximately 2.5 years. Challenges include the requirement for the crew to function autonomously, under significant communication delays, and with the potential for increased crew and interpersonal friction or tension. The specific aims of this research are to (1) develop a methodology to assess cognitive and emotional state at a distance though analysis of spontaneous verbal output in real-time communications and (2) test the feasibility of a real-time assessment tool, STRESSnet, to detect cognitive performance deficits, stress, fatigue, anxiety, and depression in the spaceflight operational setting.

Because the health and well-being of crew members directly affects mission success, it is important to track cognitive/emotional changes that may indicate a deficit. One problem with many existing assessment methods is that most require direct observation of behavior or performance or self-assessment by a pen and paper-type instrument. The requirement to assess individual and team functioning at a distance suggests the potential efficacy of a methodology to assess cognitive and emotional state in real-time from ongoing or spontaneous verbal output. The basic premise of this work is that spontaneous verbal output provides a natural and valid indicator of basic cognitive processes. Natural word use is not prone to the typical limitations of self-report measurements. That is, natural language use is less subject to social desirability bias, and can be derived in real-time without interfering with the cognitive processes being measured, and without interrupting crew performance. Moreover, natural word use is reliable and consistent across time and context, and can be meaningfully measured in individuals and teams.

STRESSnet is a lexical analysis tool designed to provide a non-obtrusive means of detecting stress and related deficits in long-duration spaceflight through the assessment of spontaneous verbal output in real-time crew communications. The research builds on existing work on text and sentiment analysis; however, STRESSnet is unique in that (1) it is specifically designed to assess stress and related cognitive/emotional states, (2) we draw on existing astronaut communications and mission logs to develop a lexicon that includes terms unique to this environment, and (3) we developed STRESSnet with the specific goal of application as a tool to assess user state and provide automatic schedule recommendations for crew work/leisure activities to counter identified deficits. STRESSnet provides an unobtrusive means to evaluate ongoing task communications within the crew and between the crew and mission control in order to assess cognitive/emotional states such as workload, negative affect, stress, anxiety, and depression.

Individualization of this tool to each crew member can be achieved in the 5-year pre-training period. This tool will be tested in Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA), NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO), and other analogs, as well as tested in archival analyses using existing mission transcripts.

 

Rationale for HRP Directed Research:

 

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The operational context of spaceflight is dynamic, complex, and extreme (e.g., Mallis & DeRoshia, 2005; NASA, 2007). In the long-duration exploratory missions of the future, these demands may be exacerbated because of the longer periods of isolation and confinement, the increased autonomy of the crew, and the potential for greater tension and interpersonal conflict (Beven, 2012). In brief, flight crews will be exposed to an array of environmental, task, and interpersonal stressors that can negatively impact performance as well as jeopardize the safety and well-being of crew members. According to the NASA Human Research Roadmap (Slack, Shea, Leveton, Whitmire, & Schmidt, 2009), Long-duration missions to remote environments will increase astronaut exposure to extreme isolation and confinement, resulting in higher stress levels and an increased risk of crew morale deterioration. Furthermore, Strangman (2010) has noted that there exists a large number of reports from the early age of exploration to the present day indicating that mood disturbance, depression, anxiety, and hostility are all substantial concerns for spaceflight (cf. Shepanek, 2005; Stuster, 2011). Unlike teams in the experimental laboratory that can be examined under a microscope, teams in the real world operate autonomously, apart from direct observation and supervision, and operate in a fluid, dynamic manner to achieve the team's objective (Driskell, Burke, Driskell, Salas, & Neuberger, 2014). Therefore, the requirement exists to develop non-obtrusive means of detecting cognitive performance deficits, stress, fatigue, or anxiety in situ without the intrusion of the psychologist's typical array of questions and questionnaires. The requirement to assess individual and team functioning at a distance suggests the potential efficacy of a methodology to assess cognitive and emotional states in real-time from ongoing or spontaneous verbal output. In brief, we believe that we can track stress, anxiety, and related cognitive and emotional states in team performance settings via non-obtrusive monitoring of lexical output.

References

Mallis, M. M., & DeRoshia, C. W. (2005). Circadian rhythms, sleep, and performance in space. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 76, B94-B107.

Slack, K., Shea, C., Leveton, L. B., Whitmire, A. M., & Schmidt, L. L. (2009). Risk of behavioral and psychiatric conditions. Human Health and Performance Risks of Space Exploration Missions. NASA SP-2009-3405. Houston, TX: National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 3-45.

Strangman, G. (2010). Human cognition and long duration space flight (White paper). Prepared for NASA-Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX: Behavioral Health and Performance.

Shepanek, M. (2005). Human behavioral research in space: quandaries for research subjects and researchers. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 76, B25-B30.

Stuster, J. (2011). Bold endeavors: Lessons from polar and space exploration. Naval Institute Press.

Driskell, T., Burke, S., Driskell, J. E., & Salas, E., & Neuberger, L. (2014). Steeling the team: Assessing individual and team functioning 'at a distance.' The Military Psychologist, 29, 12-18.

 

Task Progress: To date, we have collected data from HERA Campaign 1 (C1M1 – C1M4), HERA Campaign 2 (C2M1 – C2M4), and NEEMO18. The Year 1 effort was to conduct a proof-of-concept study to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach in the Year 1 HERA analogs. This was accomplished, demonstrating that (a) lexical measures can distinguish between high stress and nominal stress in HERA, (b) these measures are consistent with traditional pen and paper measures of stress, and (c) they show sensitivity to variations in stress levels. However, it is important to note that our goal in this project is to develop and test a lexical analysis tool that is tailored for, and optimized to, the LDSF (long duration space flight) environment, rather than simply apply an existing lexical analysis program. That is, we proposed to develop a lexical analysis tool, STRESSnet, that is specifically tailored to assess stress effects in the LDSF environment. This requires that we base this tool on a comprehensive model of the stress domain that draws on existing theory on stress, performance, and well-being, and that we incorporate terms drawn from the existing spaceflight corpus.

In Year 1, at the direction of the project sponsors, we had to shift our focus immediately to testing a preliminary version of STRESSnet in HERA1 to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. Thus, the methodological development of the STRESSnet tool was accelerated to meet this schedule, resulting in a quickly-composed scale that was suitable for testing.

In Year 2, we are able to perform the more detailed, iterative tasks that are required for the development of the STRESSnet dictionaries. Therefore, there are two primary YR2 tasks that were performed: (1) Data collection and analysis of HERA C2M1 – C2M4 (analyses are still ongoing). (2) Tool revision and elaboration to derive the STRESSnet lexical dictionaries. This report focuses on the tool development task. The products of this task are the searchable dictionaries of lexical terms to assess stress and related states.

To derive these dictionaries, we first developed a comprehensive model of stress, performance, and well-being. Guided by this model, we derived five major stress dimensions to be examined (attentional focus, cognitive load, anxiety, negative emotion, and social impairment), as well as a number of sub-facets within each core dimension. To develop lexical measures for each sub-facet (such as sadness), we first scavenged existing sources (available scales, questionnaires, existing lexical dictionaries, as well as reviewing Johnson Space Center (JSC) mission transcripts) to develop an initial inventory of terms reflecting that sub-facet or construct. We then initiated a series of iterative ratings of these word lists in order to include additional relevant terms and exclude irrelevant terms.

 

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 04/02/2019) Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Books/Book Chapters Dietz A, Driskell JE, Sierra MJ, Weaver SJ, Driskell T, Salas E. "Teamwork under stress." in "The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of the Psychology of Team Working and Collaborative Organization Processes." Ed. E. Salas, R. Rico, J. Passmore. Malden, MA : Wiley-Blackwell, in press as of April 2016., Apr-2016
Books/Book Chapters Driskell JE, King J, Driskell T. "Conducting applied experimental research." in "Laboratory experiments in the social sciences, 2nd ed." Ed. M. Webster, J. Sell. San Diego : Elsevier, 2014. p. 451-472. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-404681-8.00020-0 , Jul-2014
Books/Book Chapters Driskell T, Driskell JE, Salas E. "Mitigating stress effects on team cohesion." in "Team cohesion: Advances in psychological theory, methods, and practice." Ed. E. Salas, W.B. Vessey, A.X. Estrada. Bingley, UK : Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015. p. 247-270. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/S1534-085620150000017010 , Nov-2015
Books/Book Chapters Driskell T, Driskell JE, Salas E. "Stress, performance, and decision making in organizations." in "Judgment and Decision Making at Work." Ed. S. Highhouse, R.S. Dalal, E. Salas. New York : Routledge, 2014. p. 251-276. https://www.routledge.com/Judgment-and-Decision-Making-at-Work/Highhouse-Dalal-Salas/p/book/9780415886864 , Jan-2014
Download in PDF pdf     
Fiscal Year: FY 2014  Task Last Updated:  01/21/2015 
PI Name: Salas, Eduardo  Ph.D. 
Project Title: Using Real-Time Lexical Indicators to Detect Performance Decrements in Spaceflight Teams: A Methodology to Dynamically Monitor Cognitive, Emotional, and Social Mechanisms That Influence Performance 
   
Division Name: Human Research 
Program/Discipline--
Element/Subdiscipline:
NSBRI--Neurobehavioral and Psychosocial Factors Team 
 
Joint Agency Name:   TechPort:  Yes 
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
 (2) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed02:We need to identify and validate measures to monitor behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions to determine acceptable thresholds for these measures (IRP Rev F)
 (2) BMed03:We need to identify and quantify the key threats to and promoters of mission relevant behavioral health and performance during autonomous, long duration and/or long distance exploration missions (IRP Rev F)
 (3) Team Gap 02:We need to identify a set of validated measures, based on the key indicators of team function, to effectively monitor and measure team health and performance fluctuations during autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Space Biology Element: None
Space Biology Cross-Element Discipline: None
Space Biology Special Category: None
PI Email: eduardo.salas@rice.edu  Fax:   
PI Organization Type: UNIVERSITY  Phone: 713-348-3917  
Organization Name: Rice University 
PI Address 1: Department of Psychology 
PI Address 2: 6100 Main Street MS25 
PI Web Page:  
City: Houston  State: TX 
Zip Code: 77005  Congressional District: 
Comments: NOTE: Previous affiliation was University of Central Florida, until mid-2015  
Project Type: GROUND  Solicitation:  2012 Crew Health NNJ12ZSA002N 
Start Date: 08/01/2013  End Date:  01/31/2017 
No. of Post Docs: No. of PhD Degrees: 
No. of PhD Candidates: No. of Master' Degrees: 
No. of Master's Candidates: No. of Bachelor's Degrees: 
No. of Bachelor's Candidates: Monitoring Center:  NSBRI 
Contact Monitor:   Contact Phone:   
Contact Email:  
Flight Program:  
Flight Assignment: NOTE: End date changed to 1/31/2017 per NSBRI (Ed., 8/31/15)

NOTE: End date is now 7/31/2016 (previously 11/30/2014) per NSBRI (Ed., 12/8/14)

NOTE: End date is now 11/30/2014 per NSBRI (Ed., 7/15/14)

 

Key Personnel Changes/Previous PI:  
COI Name (Institution): Driskell, James   ( Florida Maxima Corporation ) 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-NBPF03402 
Performance Goal No.:  
Performance Goal Text:

 

Task Description: Future exploratory long-duration missions will incorporate a crew of six on a mission length of approximately 2.5 years. Challenges include the requirement for the crew to function autonomously, under significant communication delays, and with the potential for increased crew and interpersonal friction or tension. The specific aims of this research are to (1) develop a methodology to assess cognitive and emotional state at a distance though analysis of spontaneous verbal output in real-time communications and (2) test the feasibility of a real-time assessment tool, STRESSnet, to detect cognitive performance deficits, stress, fatigue, anxiety, and depression in the spaceflight operational setting.

Because the health and well-being of crew members directly affects mission success, it is important to track cognitive/emotional changes that may indicate a deficit. One problem with many existing assessment methods is that most require direct observation of behavior or performance or self-assessment by a pen and paper-type instrument. The requirement to assess individual and team functioning at a distance suggests the potential efficacy of a methodology to assess cognitive and emotional state in real-time from ongoing or spontaneous verbal output. The basic premise of this work is that spontaneous verbal output provides a natural and valid indicator of basic cognitive processes. Natural word use is not prone to the typical limitations of self-report measurements. That is, natural language use is less subject to social desirability bias, and can be derived in real-time without interfering with the cognitive processes being measured, and without interrupting crew performance. Moreover, natural word use is reliable and consistent across time and context, and can be meaningfully measured in individuals and teams.

STRESSnet is a lexical analysis tool designed to provide a non-obtrusive means of detecting stress and related deficits in long-duration spaceflight through the assessment of spontaneous verbal output in real-time crew communications. The research builds on existing work on text and sentiment analysis; however, STRESSnet is unique in that (1) it is specifically designed to assess stress and related cognitive/emotional states, (2) we draw on existing astronaut communications and mission logs to develop a lexicon that includes terms unique to this environment, and (3) we developed STRESSnet with the specific goal of application as a tool to assess user state and provide automatic schedule recommendations for crew work/leisure activities to counter identified deficits. STRESSnet provides an unobtrusive means to evaluate ongoing task communications within the crew and between the crew and mission control in order to assess cognitive/emotional states such as workload, negative affect, stress, anxiety, and depression. Individualization of this tool to each crew member can be achieved in the 5-year pre-training period. This tool will be tested in Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA), NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO), and other analogs, as well as tested in archival analyses using existing mission transcripts.

 

Rationale for HRP Directed Research:

 

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The outcome of this research effort will not only allow for the dynamic and unobtrusive detection of stress and related cognitive deficits during spaceflight, but will also be directly applicable to Earth-based applications. It is expected that a real-time assessment and graphical display of stress effects (such as attentional focus, cognitive load, negative emotion, anxiety, and social impairment), as well as measures of fatigue, mood, and team functioning (i.e., collective orientation, synchronicity) drawn from ongoing verbal or textual communications, can be used in healthcare, military, education, law enforcement, and workplace applications. Furthermore, there is a burgeoning market for sentiment analysis tools in social media and online communications.

 

Task Progress: Major Accomplishments:

Development of a theoretical model of cognitive performance deficits, stress, fatigue, and anxiety in spaceflight based on existing research on lexical analysis and language usage in astronauts.

Development of a lexical analysis tool, STRESSnet, to unobtrusively track and assess stress in individuals and teams. Implementation and test of this approach in HERA1, HERA2, HERA3, HERA4, and NEEMO18.

Deliverables: The deliverables resulting from this effort will provide the National Space Biomedical Research Institute-Neurobehavioral and Psychosocial Factors (NSBRI-NBPF) team and NASA an evidence-based, empirically-validated methodology and assessment tool for non-obtrusively detecting and mitigating stress and anxiety in the spaceflight operational setting that is capable of capturing decrements at multiple levels of analysis (i.e., individual and team). The concept of use, developed in coordination with Johnson Space Center (JSC) Operations, is a tool to assess user state and provide automatic schedule recommendations for crew work/leisure activities to counter identified deficits.

Milestones: Development of prototype STRESSnet tool HERA1 data collection, 2/14 HERA2 data collection, 4/14 HERA3 data collection, 6/14 HERA4 data collection, 9/14 NEEMO18 data collection.

7/14 Archival analysis of JSC oral history transcripts (ongoing).

 

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 04/02/2019) Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Other Journals or Periodicals Driskell T, Burke S, Driskell JE, Salas E, Neuberger L. "Steeling the team: Assessing individual and team functioning 'at a distance.' " The Military Psychologist. 2014 Apr;29(1):12-8. , Apr-2014
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Fiscal Year: FY 2013  Task Last Updated:  07/11/2013 
PI Name: Salas, Eduardo  Ph.D. 
Project Title: Using Real-Time Lexical Indicators to Detect Performance Decrements in Spaceflight Teams: A Methodology to Dynamically Monitor Cognitive, Emotional, and Social Mechanisms that Influence Performance 
   
Division Name: Human Research 
Program/Discipline--
Element/Subdiscipline:
NSBRI--Neurobehavioral and Psychosocial Factors Team 
 
Joint Agency Name:   TechPort:  Yes 
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
 (2) Team:Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed02:We need to identify and validate measures to monitor behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions to determine acceptable thresholds for these measures (IRP Rev F)
 (2) BMed03:We need to identify and quantify the key threats to and promoters of mission relevant behavioral health and performance during autonomous, long duration and/or long distance exploration missions (IRP Rev F)
 (3) Team Gap 02:We need to identify a set of validated measures, based on the key indicators of team function, to effectively monitor and measure team health and performance fluctuations during autonomous, long duration and/or distance exploration missions (IRP Rev E)
Space Biology Element: None
Space Biology Cross-Element Discipline: None
Space Biology Special Category: None
PI Email: eduardo.salas@rice.edu  Fax:   
PI Organization Type: UNIVERSITY  Phone: 713-348-3917  
Organization Name: Rice University 
PI Address 1: Department of Psychology 
PI Address 2: 6100 Main Street MS25 
PI Web Page:  
City: Houston  State: TX 
Zip Code: 77005  Congressional District: 
Comments: NOTE: Previous affiliation was University of Central Florida, until mid-2015  
Project Type: GROUND  Solicitation:  2012 Crew Health NNJ12ZSA002N 
Start Date: 08/01/2013  End Date:  07/31/2016 
No. of Post Docs:   No. of PhD Degrees:   
No. of PhD Candidates:   No. of Master' Degrees:   
No. of Master's Candidates:   No. of Bachelor's Degrees:   
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:   Monitoring Center:  NSBRI 
Contact Monitor:   Contact Phone:   
Contact Email:  
Flight Program:  
Flight Assignment: NOTE: End date is now 7/31/2016 (previously 11/30/2014) per NSBRI (Ed., 12/8/14)

NOTE: End date is now 11/30/2014 per NSBRI (Ed., 7/15/14)

 

Key Personnel Changes/Previous PI:  
COI Name (Institution): Driskell, James   ( Florida Maxima Corporation ) 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-NBPF03402 
Performance Goal No.:  
Performance Goal Text:

 

Task Description: Specific aims of this project are twofold: (1) develop a methodology to assess cognitive and emotional state “at a distance” through spontaneous verbal output in real-time communications and (2) produce a real-time assessment tool to detect cognitive performance deficits, stress, fatigue, anxiety, and depression in the spaceflight operational setting. The specific project aims meet the NSBRI Neurobehavioral and Psychosocial Factors Team (NSBRI- NBPF) call for refining “entirely non-obtrusive objective means of detecting and mitigating cognitive performance deficits, stress, fatigue, anxiety and depression for the operational setting of spaceflight.” Primary tasks for the first year include: (1) the development of a working model of cognitive performance deficits, stress, fatigue and anxiety in spaceflight and (2) the generation of a lexicon (in American English) indicative of these constructs. Second and third years of the project will focus on the validation of the lexical methodology through a multi-level empirical research. The primary tasks include: (1) validation via archival analysis of previously collected data, (2) validation studies conducted with representative and analogue populations, and (3) delivery of a transparent system which allows for real-time assessment and graphical display of stress processes drawn from ongoing verbal or textual communications. These tasks will afford an investigation of the topography of shifts in lexicon word use over the course of individual and team performance, examine lexicon word use to gauge stress effects, cognitive load, anxiety, etc., and predict individual and team performance outcomes. Overall, this multi-level approach will provide comprehensive, evidence-based guidance to NSBRI- NBPF addressing the need for refining “entirely non-obtrusive objective means of detecting and mitigating cognitive performance deficits, stress, fatigue, anxiety and depression for the operational setting of spaceflight.”

 

Rationale for HRP Directed Research:

 

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: 0

 

Task Progress: New project for FY2013.

 

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 04/02/2019) Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing