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Fiscal Year: FY 2017  Task Last Updated:  07/18/2017 
PI Name: Basner, Mathias  M.D., Ph.D. 
Project Title: Individualized Real-Time Neurocognitive Assessment Toolkit for Space Flight Fatigue 
   
Division Name: Human Research 
Program/Discipline--
Element/Subdiscipline:
NSBRI--Neurobehavioral and Psychosocial Factors Team 
 
Joint Agency Name:   TechPort:  Yes 
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
 (2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed02:We need to identify and validate measures to monitor behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions to determine acceptable thresholds for these measures (IRP Rev F)
 (2) Sleep Gap 01:We need to identify a set of validated and minimally obtrusive tools to monitor and measure sleep-wake activity and associated performance changes for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Space Biology Element: None
Space Biology Cross-Element Discipline: None
Space Biology Special Category: None
PI Email: basner@pennmedicine.upenn.edu  Fax:  215-573-6410 
PI Organization Type: UNIVERSITY  Phone: 215-573-5866  
Organization Name: University of Pennsylvania 
PI Address 1: Dept. of Psychiatry, Div. of Sleep and Chronobiology 
PI Address 2: 1013 Blockley Hall 
PI Web Page:  
City: Philadelphia  State: PA 
Zip Code: 19104  Congressional District: 
Comments:  
Project Type: FLIGHT,GROUND  Solicitation:  2010 Crew Health NNJ10ZSA003N 
Start Date: 10/01/2011  End Date:  03/31/2017 
No. of Post Docs: No. of PhD Degrees: 
No. of PhD Candidates: No. of Master' Degrees: 
No. of Master's Candidates: No. of Bachelor's Degrees: 
No. of Bachelor's Candidates: Monitoring Center:  NSBRI 
Contact Monitor:   Contact Phone:   
Contact Email:  
Flight Program: ISS 
Flight Assignment: ISS

NOTE: Element change to Human Factors & Behavioral Performance; previously Behavioral Health & Performance (Ed., 1/18/17)

NOTE: End date changed to 3/31/2017 per NSBRI (Ed., 11/10/15)

 

Key Personnel Changes/Previous PI:  
COI Name (Institution): Gur, Ruben   ( University of Pennsylvania Health System )
Dinges, David   ( University of Pennsylvania )
Mollicone, Daniel   ( Pulsar Informatics, Inc. )
Mott, Christopher   ( Pulsar Informatics, Inc. ) 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-NBPF02501 
Performance Goal No.:  
Performance Goal Text:

 

Task Description: SUPPLEMENTAL REPORTING FOR FINAL REPORT (JULY 2017):

KEY FINDINGS

- In 2015, we completed data acquisition in Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) 14-day missions (16 crew in 1-week missions, and 16 crew in 2-week missions total). A NASA report was submitted in May 2016. We also completed data acquisition in 6 Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) crew members in a 12-month mission, bringing our total N to 17. Finally, we completed collecting Cognition data at 3 Antarctic research stations along with N=13 control subjects at DLR (German Space Agency) to compare changes over mission-duration.

- Also in 2016, we completed in-flight data collection on N=7 astronauts (2 of them participating in the 12-month mission, Aim 5). Post-flight data collection in all crewmembers was completed in September 2016.

- Additionally, a validation study compared Cognition on both Windows and iPad with WinSCAT in N=96 high-performing subjects was completed. A manuscript was submitted to Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance and is in revision.

- We finalized another National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI)-funded study to increase administration flexibility of Cognition in May 2017.

- We recently completed data acquisition in a NASA funded study on the effects of elevated CO2 on cognitive performance.

- Data collection was completed for an NSBRI head down-tilt and elevated CO2 study at DLR's envihab facility (SPACE-COT). We are currently preparing the manuscript for publication.

- Finally, we supported NASA and NSBRI in their efforts transitioning Cognition into operations. We held two data results review meetings at JSC for Ops personnel and researchers. We also held two Cognition training sessions at JSC (Johnson Space Center) at the end of May.

IMPACT OF KEY FINDINGS ON HYPOTHESES, TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS, OBJECTIVES, AND SPECIFIC AIMS OF THE ORIGINAL PROPOSAL

The findings support the feasibility of Cognition administration in astronauts and astronaut surrogate populations, on both the Windows and iPad platform, and in space analog environments. Participant feedback provided during debriefs (N>60) provided helpful insights for current and future improvements of the battery. Cognition is currently deployed in several key studies funded by NSBRI, NASA, and ESA (European Space Agency), and it was selected as a core component in the project to develop a standardized behavioral measures toolkit (BCM) for spaceflight operations, demonstrating the need for and the success of the Cognition battery.

ORIGINAL PROJECT AIMS (AUGUST 2016 REPORT)

This project addresses the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Human Factors and Performance Team goal to develop tools to assess crew performance in real-time and evaluate countermeasures to mitigate the effects of fatigue, circadian misalignment, and work-overload. It has secondary relevance to the Neurobehavioral and Psychosocial Factors and Sensorimotor Adaptation Teams. It is responsive to the critical need to identify how a range of cognitive functions of astronauts can be affected in space flight by fatigue alone, its interaction with other risk factors and conditions (e.g., elevated CO2, intracranial pressure, space fog), and countermeasures. The project will deliver a comprehensive, software-based, neurocognitive toolkit (Cognition). By building on state-of-the-art neuropsychological test development, the toolkit will permit evaluation of a full range of cognitive functions using brief (1-5 min), validated procedures. The tests include -- but go beyond -- what is currently measured by WinSCAT and the Reaction Self Test on International Space Station (ISS). Importantly, the toolkit will permit rapid assessment of performance in cognitive, social-emotional, and sensorimotor domains. Performance assessment algorithms will be individualized to each astronaut's norm, and adjusted for learning using a data modeling approach, in order to optimize individual performance relative to the effects of fatigue and related cognitive impacts. The toolkit will facilitate identification of underlying neural mechanisms affected when cognitive deficits are identified, by using tests selected on the basis of published fMRI studies that identify the specific brain regions subserved by each test. The project begins at TRL (Technology Readiness Level) 5/CRL (Countermeasure Readiness Level) 6 and ends at TRL 7/CRL 8. Toolkit development will progress from laboratory, to data acquisition in astronauts at Johnson Space Center (JSC), to ISS. The resulting comprehensive, neuroscience-validated, cognitive test battery for real-time evaluation of astronauts in space will be an essential detection technology for effective fatigue countermeasure management of astronaut performance in space. The link to neuroscience will yield directions for mechanisms of cause and potential interventions.

The project has the following 5 specific aims: 1: Development of short-duration adaptive versions of neuropsychological tests for space flight; 2: Establish learning curves for neuropsychological tests and validate sensitivity to sleep deprivation; 3: Cognition software development and optimization for space flight; 4: JSC field testing, astronaut learning curves, and astronaut norms for performance feedback algorithm development; 5: International Space Station (ISS) feasibility study.

KEY FINDINGS

-The first full version of Cognition was launched in November 2012 (Aims 1 and 3) and deployed in the sleep restriction studies at UPenn (Aim 2). These studies were completed in 2015, and a total of 108 laboratory participants completed the test battery (all 10 tests) 12-18 times (N=36 total sleep deprivation, N=101 partial sleep restriction, N=7 control subjects). Final results were presented at a review meeting in 7/2016 at NASA JSC.

- Collection of normative data from mission controllers (N=11) and astronauts (N=7) at JSC was completed (Aim 4).

- Data acquisition was also found to be feasible in space analog environments, particularly at the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) facility, the Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) facility, and several Antarctic research stations (Concordia, Halley-VI, and Neumayer-III).

- In the past year, we completed data acquisition in HERA 14-day missions (16 crew in 1-week missions, and 16 crew in 2-week missions total). A NASA report was submitted in May 2016.We also completed data acquisition in 6 HI-SEAS crew members in an 8-month mission, and began data collection in N=6 crew members participating in a 12-month mission. Finally, we continued collecting Cognition data at 3 Antarctic research stations along with N=13 control subjects at DLR (German Space Agency) to compare changes over mission-duration.

- Earlier this year, we completed in-flight data collection on N=7 astronauts (2 of them participating in the 12-month mission, Aim 5). Post-flight data collection is ongoing in two 12-month mission astronauts/cosmonauts and two 6-month mission astronauts.

- Additionally, a validation study compared Cognition on both Windows and iPad with WinSCAT in N=96 high-performing subjects was completed.

- We started another NSBRI-funded study to increase administration flexibility of Cognition.

- We recently completed data acquisition in a NASA funded study on the effects of elevated CO2 on cognitive performance.

- Data collection was completed for an NSBRI head down-tilt and elevated CO2 study at DLR's envihab facility (SPACE-COT). We are currently preparing the manuscript for publication.

- Finally, we supported NASA and NSBRI in formulating a customer supplier agreement for transitioning Cognition into operations.

IMPACT OF KEY FINDINGS ON HYPOTHESES, TECH. REQUIREMENTS, OBJECTIVES AND SPECIFIC AIMS OF THE ORIGINAL PROPOSAL: Preliminary findings support the feasibility of Cognition administration in astronauts and astronaut surrogate populations, on both the Windows and iPad platform, and in space analog environments. Participant feedback provided during debriefs (N>60) provided helpful insights for current and future improvements of the battery. Cognition is currently deployed in several key studies funded by NSBRI, NASA, and the European Space Agency (ESA), and it was selected as a core component in the project to develop a standardized behavioral measures toolkit (SBMT) for spaceflight operations, demonstrating the need for and the success of the Cognition battery.

PROPOSED RESEARCH PLAN FOR THE COMING YEAR: Post-flight data acquisition for the 12-month mission will conclude in the final year of the project.

 

Rationale for HRP Directed Research:

 

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The project will have substantial impact on progress in three major areas relevant to the needs of NASA and state of the knowledge.

1. Cognition markedly enhance astronauts' and flight physicians' ability to quickly (real-time) and objectively evaluate the neurocognitive status of astronauts relative to activities that can induce fatigue in space (i.e., acute sleep loss from prolonged duty, chronic sleep estriction, inadequate recovery sleep, slam shifts and circadian misalignment, high physical and/or cognitive workloads, EVAs, etc.); relative to fatigue countermeasures, e.g., different sleep-wake schedules, sleep-promoting and wake-promoting medications, light exposure for circadian associated with occult neurobehavioral risks in space, e.g., space fog, space asthenia/neurasthenia.

2. Cognition permits identification of important fatigue-related individual differences (i.e., differential vulnerability) in the nature and severity of cognitive performance deficits (e.g., from deficits in spatial orientation, to working memory, to abstract reasoning, to risk decision- making) during space flight, in a comprehensive and precise manner to permit optimal targeting of fatigue countermeasures to specific individuals, and to help predict the performance capability of individual astronauts relative to specific space flight tasks (i.e., align cognitive performance readiness relative to the need to conduct specific space flight tasks).

3. Cognition helps in the medical identification and treatment management course of neurologically-based performance deficits in space flight due to environmental stressors (e.g., exposure to high CO2, hypoxia, radiation); medically urgent events (e.g., head injury, papilledema, and/or the possibility of elevated intracranial pressure [ICP]); and neurobehavioral conditions brought on by prolonged stays in space (e.g., time in confinement, neural remodeling from sensorimotor alterations, affective disorders).

Although the Cognition test battery is primarily developed for space flight, it will be a valuable tool in many Earth-based patient and non-patient population settings, where identification of suboptimal cognitive performance is important for safe operations (e.g., truck drivers, operators of heavy machinery) or for tracking therapeutic effectiveness. Cognition is optimized for repeated administration, a feature that many of the currently available test batteries are lacking.

 

Task Progress: SUPPLEMENTAL REPORTING FOR FINAL REPORT (JULY 2017): Post-flight data collection in two 12-month mission astronauts/cosmonauts and two 6-month mission astronauts was finalized in September 2016. One year mission results were presented at the Human Research Program workshop in January 2017 in Galveston, TX and at a one year mission investigator workshop in Houston, TX in March 2017.

AUGUST 2016 REPORT: Earlier this year, we completed in-flight data collection on N=7 astronauts (2 of them participating in the 12-month mission, Aim 5). Post-flight data collection is ongoing in two 12-month mission astronauts/cosmonauts and two 6-month mission astronauts.

 

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 06/04/2018) Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Basner M, Savitt A, Moore TM, Port AM, McGuire S, Ecker AJ, Nasrini J, Mollicone DJ, Mott CM, McCann T, Dinges DF, Gur RC. "Development and validation of the Cognition test battery for spaceflight." Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance. 2015 Nov;86(11):942-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.4343.2015 ; PubMed PMID: 26564759; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4691281 , Nov-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Johannes B, Sitev AS, Vinokhodova AG, Salnitski VP, Savchenko EG, Artyukhova AE, Bubeev YA, Morukov B, Tafforin C, Basner M, Dinges DF, Rittweger J. "Wireless monitoring of changes in crew relations during long-duration mission simulation." PLoS One. 2015 Aug 7;10(8):e0134814. eCollection 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134814 ; PubMed PMID: 26252656; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4529101 , Aug-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Lerchl K, Rakova N, Dahlmann A, Rauh M, Goller U, Basner M, Dinges DF, Beck L, Agureev A, Larina I, Baranov V, Morukov B, Eckardt KU, Vassilieva G, Wabel P, Vienken J, Kirsch K, Johannes B, Krannich A, Luft FC, Titze J. "Agreement between 24-hour salt ingestion and sodium excretion in a controlled environment." Hypertension. 2015 Oct;66(4):850-7. Epub 2015 Aug 10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.115.05851 ; PubMed PMID: 26259596; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4567387 , Oct-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Perlis ML, Grandner MA, Brown GK, Basner M, Chakravorty S, Morales KH, Gehrman PR, Chaudhary NS, Thase ME, Dinges DF. "Nocturnal wakefulness as a previously unrecognized risk factor for suicide." Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2016 Jun;77(6):e726-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/JCP.15m10131 ; PubMed PMID: 27337421 , Jun-2016
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Basner M, Mcguire S, Goel N, Rao H, Dinges DF. "A new likelihood ratio metric for the psychomotor vigilance test and its sensitivity to sleep loss." J Sleep Res. 2015 Dec;24(6):702-13. Epub 2015 Jun 29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsr.12322 ; PubMed PMID: 26118830 , Dec-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Moore TM, Basner M, Nasrini J, Hermosillo E, Kabadi S, Roalf DR, McGuire S, Ecker AJ, Ruparel K, Port AM, Jackson CT, Dinges DF, Gur RC. "Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for spaceflight in a sample of highly educated adults." Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017 Oct 1;88(10):937-46. https://doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.4801.2017 ; PubMed PMID: 28923143 , Oct-2017
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Basner M, Nasrini J, Hermosillo E, McGuire S, Dinges DF, Moore TM, Gur RC, Rittweger J, Mulder E, Wittkowski M, Donoviel D, Stevens B, Bershad EM. "Effects of -12° head-down tilt with and without elevated levels of CO2 on cognitive performance: The SPACECOT study." J Appl Physiol (1985). 2017 Dec 14. [Epub ahead of print] https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00855.2017 ; PubMed PMID: 29357516 , Dec-2017
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Boland EM, Rao H, Dinges DF, Smith RV, Goel N, Detre JA, Basner M, Sheline YI, Thase ME, Gehrman PR. "Meta-analysis of the antidepressant effects of acute sleep deprivation." J Clin Psychiatry. 2017 Sep/Oct;78(8):e1020-e1034. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.16r11332 ; PubMed PMID: 28937707 , Sep-2017
Awards Basner M. "Journal Publication Award for the Most Outstanding Space Medicine Article published in the Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance Journal, April 2016." Apr-2016
Download in PDF pdf     
Fiscal Year: FY 2016  Task Last Updated:  11/04/2015 
PI Name: Basner, Mathias  M.D., Ph.D. 
Project Title: Individualized Real-Time Neurocognitive Assessment Toolkit for Space Flight Fatigue 
   
Division Name: Human Research 
Program/Discipline--
Element/Subdiscipline:
NSBRI--Neurobehavioral and Psychosocial Factors Team 
 
Joint Agency Name:   TechPort:  Yes 
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
 (2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed02:We need to identify and validate measures to monitor behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions to determine acceptable thresholds for these measures (IRP Rev F)
 (2) Sleep Gap 01:We need to identify a set of validated and minimally obtrusive tools to monitor and measure sleep-wake activity and associated performance changes for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Space Biology Element: None
Space Biology Cross-Element Discipline: None
Space Biology Special Category: None
PI Email: basner@pennmedicine.upenn.edu  Fax:  215-573-6410 
PI Organization Type: UNIVERSITY  Phone: 215-573-5866  
Organization Name: University of Pennsylvania 
PI Address 1: Dept. of Psychiatry, Div. of Sleep and Chronobiology 
PI Address 2: 1013 Blockley Hall 
PI Web Page:  
City: Philadelphia  State: PA 
Zip Code: 19104  Congressional District: 
Comments:  
Project Type: FLIGHT,GROUND  Solicitation:  2010 Crew Health NNJ10ZSA003N 
Start Date: 10/01/2011  End Date:  03/31/2017 
No. of Post Docs: No. of PhD Degrees: 
No. of PhD Candidates: No. of Master' Degrees: 
No. of Master's Candidates: No. of Bachelor's Degrees: 
No. of Bachelor's Candidates: Monitoring Center:  NSBRI 
Contact Monitor:   Contact Phone:   
Contact Email:  
Flight Program: ISS 
Flight Assignment: ISS

NOTE: End date changed to 3/31/2017 per NSBRI (Ed., 11/10/15)

 

Key Personnel Changes/Previous PI:  
COI Name (Institution): Gur, Ruben   ( University of Pennsylvania Health System )
Dinges, David   ( University of Pennsylvania )
Mollicone, Daniel   ( Pulsar Informatics, Inc. )
Mott, Christopher   ( Pulsar Informatics, Inc. ) 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-NBPF02501 
Performance Goal No.:  
Performance Goal Text:

 

Task Description: ORIGINAL PROJECT AIMS

This project addresses the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Human Factors and Performance Team goal to develop tools to assess crew performance in real-time and evaluate countermeasures to mitigate the effects of fatigue, circadian misalignment, and work-overload. It has secondary relevance to the Neurobehavioral and Psychosocial Factors and Sensorimotor Adaptation Teams. It is responsive to the critical need to identify how a range of cognitive functions of astronauts can be affected in space flight by fatigue alone, its interaction with other risk factors and conditions (e.g., elevated CO2, intracranial pressure, space fog), and countermeasures. The project will deliver a comprehensive, software-based, neurocognitive toolkit (Cognition). By building on state-of-the-art neuropsychological test development, the toolkit will permit evaluation of a full range of cognitive functions using brief (1-5 min), validated procedures. The tests include -- but go beyond -- what is currently measured by WinSCAT and the Reaction Self Test on International Space Station (ISS). Importantly, the toolkit will permit rapid assessment of performance in cognitive, social-emotional, and sensorimotor domains. Performance assessment algorithms will be individualized to each astronaut's norm, and adjusted for learning using a data modeling approach, in order to optimize individual performance relative to the effects of fatigue and related cognitive impacts. The toolkit will facilitate identification of underlying neural mechanisms affected when cognitive deficits are identified, by using tests selected on the basis of published fMRI studies that identify the specific brain regions subserved by each test. The project begins at TRL (Technology Readiness Level) 5/CRL (Countermeasure Readiness Level) 6 and ends at TRL 7/CRL 8. Toolkit development will progress from laboratory, to data acquisition in astronauts at Johnson Space Center (JSC), to ISS. The resulting comprehensive, neuroscience-validated, cognitive test battery for real-time evaluation of astronauts in space will be an essential detection technology for effective fatigue countermeasure management of astronaut performance in space. The link to neuroscience will yield directions for mechanisms of cause and potential interventions.

The project has the following 5 specific aims: 1: Development of short-duration adaptive versions of neuropsychological tests for space flight; 2: Establish learning curves for neuropsychological tests and validate sensitivity to sleep deprivation; 3: Cognition software development and optimization for space flight; 4: JSC field testing, astronaut learning curves, and astronaut norms for performance feedback algorithm development; 5: International Space Station (ISS) feasibility study

KEY FINDINGS

-The first full version of Cognition was launched in November 2012 (Aims 1 and 3) and deployed in the sleep restriction studies at UPenn (Aim 2).

- Since then, 97 laboratory participants have completed the test battery (all 10 tests) 12-18 times (N=55 total sleep deprivation, N=87 partial sleep restriction, N=10 control subjects). Preliminary analyses presented at both the 2014 and 2015 Human Research Program (HRP) meetings suggest that 3 of the 10 Cognition tests are sensitive to the effects of acute total sleep deprivation, with the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) being the most sensitive test (Aim 2).

- Collection of normative data from mission controllers (N=11) and astronauts (N=7) at JSC was completed (Aim 4).

- Data acquisition was also found to be feasible in space analog environments, particularly at the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) facility, the Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) facility, and several Antarctic research stations (Concordia, Halley-VI, and Neumayer-III).

- In the past year, we tested 4 HERA crew members in a 7-day mission, 12 in three 14-day missions, 6 HI-SEAS crew members in an 8-month mission, and began data collection in N=35 winter-over crew at 3 Antarctic research stations, along with N=13 control subjects at DLR (German Space Agency) to compare changes over mission-duration.

- Also in the past year, we completed data collection from our first in-flight astronaut as part of the ISS feasibility study in close collaboration with ISS-MP (Aim 5), started data collection from 3 more in-flight astronauts, and familiarized 2 more with the battery.

- Data collection is ongoing from 1 twin astronaut on ground (for our involvement in NASA's twins study), and from one cosmonaut that will remain on ISS for 1 year.

- Additionally, a Validation study was designed and started that will compare Cognition on both Windows and iPad with WinSCAT in N=96 high-performing subjects.

- Finally, data collection was completed for an NSBRI head down-tilt and elevated CO2 study at German Aerospace Center (DLR)'s envihab facility (SPACE-COT).

IMPACT OF KEY FINDINGS ON HYPOTHESES, TECH. REQUIREMENTS, OBJECTIVES AND SPECIFIC AIMS OF THE ORIGINAL PROPOSAL

Preliminary findings support the feasibility of Cognition administration in astronauts and astronaut surrogate populations, on both the Windows and iPad platform, and in space analog environments. Participant feedback provided during debriefs (N=52) provided helpful insights for current and future improvements of the battery. Cognition was selected for 8 HERA missions, 3 HI-SEAS missions, Scott Kelly's and Michail Kornienko's 12-month ISS mission, NASA's TWIN study, a study on cognitive effects in Antarctic winter-overers, and an NSBRI study on the effects of CO2 and fluid shifts. Additionally, Cognition was selected as a core component in the project to develop a standardized behavioral measures toolkit (SBMT) for space flight operations, demonstrating the need for and the success of the Cognition battery.

PROPOSED RESEARCH PLAN FOR THE COMING YEAR

Data acquisition at HERA, and in sleep restriction studies at UPenn will be finalized in the coming year. Data collection will continue on ISS, in HI-SEAS, and in Antarctica through the year. Finally, Cognition will be integrated as part of SBMT into a comprehensive toolkit for space flight operations.

 

Rationale for HRP Directed Research:

 

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The project will have substantial impact on progress in three major areas relevant to the needs of NASA and state of the knowledge.

1. Cognition will markedly enhance astronauts' and flight physicians' ability to quickly (real-time) and objectively evaluate the neurocognitive status of astronauts relative to activities that can induce fatigue in space (i.e., acute sleep loss from prolonged duty, chronic sleep estriction, inadequate recovery sleep, slam shifts and circadian misalignment, high physical and/or cognitive workloads, EVAs, etc.); relative to fatigue countermeasures, e.g., different sleep-wake schedules, sleep-promoting and wake-promoting medications, light exposure for circadian associated with occult neurobehavioral risks in space (e.g., space fog, space asthenia/neurasthenia).

2. Cognition will permit identification of important fatigue-related individual differences (i.e., differential vulnerability) in the nature and severity of cognitive performance deficits (e.g., from deficits in spatial orientation, to working memory, to abstract reasoning, to risk decision- making) during space flight, in a comprehensive and precise manner to permit optimal targeting of fatigue countermeasures to specific individuals, and to help predict the performance capability of individual astronauts relative to specific space flight tasks (i.e., align cognitive performance readiness relative to the need to conduct specific space flight tasks).

3. Cognition will help in the medical identification and treatment management course of neurologically-based performance deficits in space flight due to environmental stressors (e.g., exposure to high CO2, hypoxia, radiation); medically urgent events (e.g., head injury, papilledema, and/or the possibility of elevated intracranial pressure [ICP]); and neurobehavioral conditions brought on by prolonged stays in space (e.g., time in confinement, neural remodeling from sensorimotor alterations, affective disorders).

Although the Cognition test battery is primarily developed for space flight, it will be a valuable tool in many Earth-based patient and non-patient population settings, where identification of suboptimal cognitive performance is important for safe operations (e.g., truck drivers, operators of heavy machinery) or for tracking therapeutic effectiveness. Cognition will be optimized for repeated administration, a feature that many of the currently available test batteries are lacking.

 

Task Progress: Aim 1 (Development of short-duration adaptive versions of Cognition neuropsychological tests for space flight): We continued data analysis of the Emotion Recognition test. This analysis provided us with the difficulty of each item, a prerequisite for adaptive testing. We also identified items that do not seem to work and will be eliminated from future versions of the battery (further decreasing test time). We believe that, with additional development work, it will be possible to further reduce administration time of the battery, increasing its operational feasibility and acceptance in the astronaut population. Additionally, we began a validation study that will compare Cognition on both Windows and iPad with WinSCAT in 96 high-performing subjects.

Aim 2 (Establish learning curves for Cognition neuropsychological tests and validate sensitivity to sleep deprivation): The first full version was launched in November 2012 and deployed in laboratory studies at UPenn. Since then, 97 subjects have completed the test battery (all 10 tests) 12-18 times. We plan to finalize data collection in these sleep deprivation protocols in the following year. Preliminary analyses suggest that 3 of the 10 Cognition tests are sensitive to the effects of acute total sleep deprivation.

Aim 3 (Cognition Toolkit software development and optimization for space flight): The software has an easy to use web interface that allows for real-time quality control and export of test data gathered anywhere on Earth and in space if an Internet connection is available. Cognition has been deployed on the ISS, in laboratory studies at the University of Pennsylvania, in ground studies at JSC, in space analog studies at the HERA and HI-SEAS facilities, and in three research stations in Antarctica. Cognition has been translated to four other languages (German, Italian, French, Russian) for our international studies.

Aim 4 (JSC field testing, astronaut learning curves, and astronaut norms for performance feedback algorithm development): Data acquisition in mission controllers (N=11) and astronauts (N=7) at JSC was found to be feasible. Mission controllers and astronauts each performed the full battery 15 times total in 1-2 week intervals between tests. Feedback provided during debriefs provided us with important information for current and future improvements of the Cognition software.

Aim 5 (ISS feasibility study): We have deployed the Cognition battery on the ISS to assess feasibility, and completed data collection in 1 in-flight Astronaut, started data collection in 3 more in-flight astronauts, and familiarized 2 more with the battery. All in-flight Astronauts perform the battery on ISS with a 1-3 week interval between tests. In addition, we have also started collecting data from both Scott Kelly and Mikhail Kornienko as one of the projects that examine them over the course of the 12-month mission, and from Mark Kelly on Earth.

 

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 06/04/2018) Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Basner M, McGuire S, Goel, N, Rao H, Dinges DF. "A new likelihood ratio metric for the psychomotor vigilance test and its sensitivity to sleep loss." Journal of Sleep Research.2015 Jun 29. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26118830 , Jun-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Basner M, Spaeth AM, Dinges DF. "Sociodemographic characteristics and waking activities and their role in the timing and duration of sleep." Sleep. 2014 Dec 1;37(12):1889-906. http://dx.doi.org/10.5665/sleep.4238 ; PubMed PMID: 25325472; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4548514 , Dec-2014
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Goel N, Basner M, Dinges DF. "Phenotyping of neurobehavioral vulnerability to circadian phase during sleep loss." Methods Enzymol. 2015;552:285-308. Epub 2014 Dec 26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.mie.2014.10.024 ; PubMed PMID: 25707282 , Feb-2015
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Ma N, Dinges DF, Basner M, Rao, H. "How acute total sleep loss affects the attending brain: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies." Sleep. 2015 Feb 1;38(2):233-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.5665/sleep.4404 ; PubMed PMID: 25409102; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4288604 , Feb-2015
Download in PDF pdf     
Fiscal Year: FY 2015  Task Last Updated:  10/14/2014 
PI Name: Basner, Mathias  M.D., Ph.D. 
Project Title: Individualized Real-Time Neurocognitive Assessment Toolkit for Space Flight Fatigue 
   
Division Name: Human Research 
Program/Discipline--
Element/Subdiscipline:
NSBRI--Neurobehavioral and Psychosocial Factors Team 
 
Joint Agency Name:   TechPort:  Yes 
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
 (2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed02:We need to identify and validate measures to monitor behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions to determine acceptable thresholds for these measures (IRP Rev F)
 (2) Sleep Gap 01:We need to identify a set of validated and minimally obtrusive tools to monitor and measure sleep-wake activity and associated performance changes for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Space Biology Element: None
Space Biology Cross-Element Discipline: None
Space Biology Special Category: None
PI Email: basner@pennmedicine.upenn.edu  Fax:  215-573-6410 
PI Organization Type: UNIVERSITY  Phone: 215-573-5866  
Organization Name: University of Pennsylvania 
PI Address 1: Dept. of Psychiatry, Div. of Sleep and Chronobiology 
PI Address 2: 1013 Blockley Hall 
PI Web Page:  
City: Philadelphia  State: PA 
Zip Code: 19104  Congressional District: 
Comments:  
Project Type: FLIGHT,GROUND  Solicitation:  2010 Crew Health NNJ10ZSA003N 
Start Date: 10/01/2011  End Date:  09/30/2015 
No. of Post Docs: No. of PhD Degrees: 
No. of PhD Candidates: No. of Master' Degrees: 
No. of Master's Candidates: No. of Bachelor's Degrees: 
No. of Bachelor's Candidates: Monitoring Center:  NSBRI 
Contact Monitor:   Contact Phone:   
Contact Email:  
Flight Program: ISS 
Flight Assignment:

 

Key Personnel Changes/Previous PI:  
COI Name (Institution): Gur, Ruben   ( University of Pennsylvania Health System )
Dinges, David   ( University of Pennsylvania )
Mollicone, Daniel   ( Pulsar Informatics, Inc. )
Mott, Christopher   ( Pulsar Informatics, Inc. ) 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-NBPF02501 
Performance Goal No.:  
Performance Goal Text:

 

Task Description: ORIGINAL PROJECT AIMS/OBJECTIVES

This project addresses the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Human Factors and Performance Team goal to develop tools to assess crew performance in real-time and evaluate countermeasures to mitigate the effects of fatigue, circadian misalignment, and work-overload. It has secondary relevance to the Neurobehavioral and Psychosocial Factors and Sensorimotor Adaptation Teams. It is responsive to the critical need to identify how a range of cognitive functions of astronauts can be affected in space flight by fatigue alone, its interaction with other risk factors and conditions (e.g., elevated CO2, intracranial pressure, space fog), and countermeasures. The project will deliver a comprehensive, software-based, neurocognitive toolkit (Cognition). By building on state-of-the-art neuropsychological test development, the toolkit will permit evaluation of a full range of cognitive functions using brief (1-5 min), validated procedures. The tests include - but go beyond - what is currently measured by WinSCAT and the Reaction Self Test on International Space Station (ISS). Importantly, the toolkit will permit rapid assessment of performance in cognitive, social-emotional, and sensorimotor domains. Performance assessment algorithms will be individualized to each astronaut's norm, and adjusted for learning using a data modeling approach, in order to optimize individual performance relative to the effects of fatigue and related cognitive impacts. The toolkit will facilitate identification of underlying neural mechanisms affected when cognitive deficits are identified, by using tests selected on the basis of published fMRI studies that identify the specific brain regions subserved by each test. The project begins at TRL 5/CRL 6 and ends at TRL (Technology Readiness Level) 7/CRL (Countermeasure Readiness Level) 8. Toolkit development will progress from laboratory, to data acquisition in astronauts at Johnson Space Center (JSC), to International Space Station (ISS). The resulting comprehensive, neuroscience-validated, cognitive test battery for real-time evaluation of astronauts in space will be an essential detection technology for effective fatigue countermeasure management of astronaut performance in space. The link to neuroscience will yield directions for mechanisms of cause and potential interventions.

The project has the following 5 specific aims: Specific Aim 1: Development of short-duration adaptive versions of neuropsychological tests for space flight; Specific Aim 2: Establish learning curves for neuropsychological tests and validate sensitivity to sleep deprivation; Specific Aim 3: Cognition software development and optimization for space flight; Specific Aim 4: JSC field testing, astronaut learning curves, and astronaut norms for performance feedback algorithm development; Specific Aim 5: International Space Station (ISS) feasibility study.

KEY FINDINGS

The first full version of Cognition was launched in November 2012 (Aims 1 and 3) and deployed in the sleep restriction studies at the University of Pennsylvania (Aim 2). Since then, 71 laboratory participants have completed the test battery (all 10 tests) 12-18 times (N=40 total sleep deprivation, N=64 partial sleep restriction, N=7 control subjects). Preliminary analyses presented at the 2014 Human Research Program (HRP) meeting suggest that all 10 Cognition tests are sensitive to the effects of acute total sleep deprivation, with the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) being the most sensitive test (Aim 2). Progress was also made in gathering normative and analog data from astronauts and astronaut surrogate populations. Data acquisition in mission controllers (N=11/11) and astronauts (N=7/8) at JSC was found to be feasible (Aim 4). Data acquisition was also found to be feasible in space analog environments, particularly at the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) and the Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) facilities. In the past year, we tested 12 HERA crew members of three 7-day missions and 5 HI-SEAS crew members of one 4-month mission. In July 2014, we familiarized 3 astronauts to the Cognition test battery as part of the ISS feasibility study in close collaboration with ISS-MP (Aim 5). The first astronaut is scheduled to launch for a 6-month mission with increment 41S in November 2014.

IMPACT OF KEY FINDINGS ON HYPOTHESES, TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS, OBJECTIVES, AND SPECIFIC AIMS OF THE ORIGINAL PROPOSAL

Preliminary findings support the feasibility of Cognition administration in astronauts and astronaut surrogate populations, on both the Windows 7 and iPad platform, and in space analog environments. Participant feedback provided during debriefs (N=34) provided helpful insights for current and future improvements of the battery. Cognition was selected for 4 HERA missions, 3 HI-SEAS missions, Scott Kelly's and Michail Kornienko's 12-month ISS mission, NASA's TWIN study, and a study on cognitive effects in Antarctic winter-overers, demonstrating both the need for and the success of the Cognition battery.

PROPOSED RESEARCH PLAN FOR THE COMING YEAR

Data acquisition in sleep restriction studies at the University of Pennsylvania will continue and data analysis will be finalized by the end of year 4 of the project (Aim 2). Data acquisition and analysis of mission controllers and astronauts at JSC will also be finalized in the next year (Aim 4). We plan to enroll 4 more HERA crew members in September 2014 and 12 more HI-SEAS crew members over two missions between October 2014 and July 2016. We will start our ISS feasibility study in November 2014.

 

Rationale for HRP Directed Research:

 

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The project will have substantial impact on progress in three major areas relevant to the needs of NASA and state of the knowledge. 1. Cognition will markedly enhance astronauts' and flight physicians' ability to quickly (real-time) and objectively evaluate the neurocognitive status of astronauts relative to activities that can induce fatigue in space (i.e., acute sleep loss from prolonged duty, chronic sleep restriction, inadequate recovery sleep, slam shifts and circadian misalignment, high physical and/or cognitive workloads, EVAs, etc.); relative to fatigue countermeasures (e.g., different sleep-wake schedules, sleep-promoting and wake-promoting medications, light exposure for circadian entrainment, and acute alertness); and relative to symptom reports of fatigue associated with occult neurobehavioral risks in space (e.g., space fog, space asthenia/neurasthenia). 2. Cognition will permit identification of important fatigue-related individual differences (i.e., differential vulnerability) in the nature and severity of cognitive performance deficits (e.g., from deficits in spatial orientation, to working memory, to abstract reasoning, to risk decision-making) during space flight, in a comprehensive and precise manner to permit optimal targeting of fatigue countermeasures to specific individuals, and to help predict the performance capability of individual astronauts relative to specific space flight tasks (i.e., align cognitive performance readiness relative to the need to conduct specific space flight tasks). 3. Cognition will help in the medical identification and treatment management course of neurologically based performance deficits in space flight due to environmental stressors (e.g., exposure to high CO2, hypoxia, radiation); medically urgent events (e.g., head injury, papilledema, and/or the possibility of elevated intracranial pressure [ICP]); and neurobehavioral conditions brought on by prolonged stays in space (e.g., time in confinement, neural remodeling from sensorimotor alterations, affective disorders). Although the Cognition test battery is primarily developed for space flight, it will be a valuable tool in many Earth-based patient and non-patient population settings, where identification of suboptimal cognitive performance is important for safe operations (e.g., truck drivers, operators of heavy machinery) or for tracking therapeutic effectiveness. Cognition will be optimized for repeated administration, a feature that many of the currently available test batteries are lacking.

 

Task Progress: Specific Aim 1 (Development of short-duration adaptive versions of CATS (Comprehensive Aphasia Test) neuropsychological tests for space flight): We continued data analysis of the Emotion Recognition test. This analysis provided us with the difficulty of each item, a prerequisite for adaptive testing. We also identified items that do not seem to work and will be eliminated from future versions of the battery (thus further decreasing test time). Results on an adaptive duration PVT were published in SLEEP.

Specific Aim 2 (Establish learning curves for CATS neuropsychological tests and validate sensitivity to sleep deprivation): The first full version was launched in November 2012 and deployed in laboratory studies at the University of Pennsylvania. Since then, 71 subjects have completed the test battery (all 10 tests) 12-18 times. We plan to gather data on up to 40 more subjects in these sleep deprivation protocols. Preliminary analyses suggest that all 10 Cognition tests are sensitive to the effects of acute total sleep deprivation.

Specific Aim 3 (CATS Toolkit software development and optimization for space flight): The software now exists both on a Windows 7 and iPad platform, with an easy to use web interface that allows for real-time quality control and export of test data gathered anywhere on the Earth and in space if a connection to the Internet is available. Cognition has been deployed in laboratory studies at the University of Pennsylvania, ground studies at JSC, and space analog studies at the HERA and HI-SEAS facilities. In the next year, Cognition will be deployed to Antarctica (e.g., Concordia Station) and the International Space Station. Cognition has been translated to four other languages (German, Italian, French, Russian) for our international studies.

Specific Aim 4 (JSC field testing, astronaut learning curves, and astronaut norms for performance feedback algorithm development): Data acquisition in mission controllers (N=11) and astronauts (N=7) at JSC was found to be feasible. JSC mission controllers and astronauts each performed the full test battery 15 times total in 1-2 week intervals between tests. Feedback provided during debriefs provided us with important information for current and future improvements of the Cognition software.

Specific Aim 5 (International Space Station (ISS) feasibility study): We have familiarized the Cognition test battery to 3 astronauts who are scheduled to launch for a 6-month missions. They will perform Cognition up to 18 times total with a 1 to 3 week interval between tests in-flight. In addition, Cognition has been approved to be one of the projects flying on the 12-month ISS mission of one U.S. astronaut and one Russian cosmonaut. Cognition has also been approved as one of 9 other projects involved with NASA's Twins study, with one twin flying the 12-month ISS mission (as previously mentioned) while the other twin remains on Earth. The launch date for the 12-month mission is scheduled for March 2015.

 

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 06/04/2018) Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Abe T, Mollicone D, Basner M, Dinges DF. "Sleepiness and safety: Where biology needs technology." Sleep and Biological Rhythms. 2014 Apr;12(2):74-84. PubMed PMID: 24955033; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4061704 ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sbr.12067 , Apr-2014
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Basner M, Dinges DF. "Lost in space: sleep." Lancet Neurology. 2014 Sep;13(9):860-2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(14)70176-0 ; PubMed PMID: 25127233 (Comment on: Laura K Barger, Erin E Flynn-Evans, Alan Kubey, Lorcan Walsh, Joseph M Ronda, Wei Wang, Kenneth P Wright Jr, Charles A Czeisler. Prevalence of sleep deficiency and use of hypnotic drugs in astronauts before, during, and after spaceflight: an observational study. The Lancet Neurology, Volume 13, Issue 9, September 2014, Pages 904-912.) , Sep-2014
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Basner M, Dinges DF, Mollicone DJ, Savelev I, Ecker AJ, Di Antonio A, Jones CW, Hyder EC, Kan K, Morukov BV, Sutton JP. "Psychological and behavioral changes during confinement in a 520-day simulated interplanetary mission to Mars." PLoS One. 2014 Mar 27;9(3):e93298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0093298 eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 24675720; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3968121 , Mar-2014
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Basner M, Rao H, Goel N, Dinges DF. "Sleep deprivation and neurobehavioral dynamics." Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2013 Oct;23(5):854-63. Review. Epub 2013 Mar 20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2013.02.008 ; PubMed PMID: 23523374; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3700596 , Oct-2013
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Minkel J, Moreta M, Muto J, Htaik O, Jones C, Basner M, Dinges D. "Sleep deprivation potentiates HPA axis stress reactivity in healthy adults." Health Psychol. 2014 Nov;33(11):1430-4. Epub 2014 May 12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0034219 ; PubMed PMID: 24818608 (originally reported as "Epub 2014 May 12" in October 2014, Ed., 11/10/15) , Nov-2014
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Yi B, Rykova M, Feuerecker M, Jäger B, Ladinig C, Basner M, Hörl M, Matzel S, Kaufmann I, Strewe C, Nichiporuk I, Vassilieva G, Rinas K, Baatout S, Schelling G, Thiel M, Dinges DF, Morukov B, Choukèr A. "520-d Isolation and confinement simulating a flight to Mars reveals heightened immune responses and alterations of leukocyte phenotype." Brain Behav Immun. 2014 Aug;40:203-10. Epub 2014 Apr 2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2014.03.018 ; PubMed PMID: 24704568 , Aug-2014
Download in PDF pdf     
Fiscal Year: FY 2014  Task Last Updated:  09/17/2013 
PI Name: Basner, Mathias  M.D., Ph.D. 
Project Title: Individualized Real-Time Neurocognitive Assessment Toolkit for Space Flight Fatigue 
   
Division Name: Human Research 
Program/Discipline--
Element/Subdiscipline:
NSBRI--Neurobehavioral and Psychosocial Factors Team 
 
Joint Agency Name:   TechPort:  Yes 
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
 (2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed02:We need to identify and validate measures to monitor behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions to determine acceptable thresholds for these measures (IRP Rev F)
 (2) Sleep Gap 01:We need to identify a set of validated and minimally obtrusive tools to monitor and measure sleep-wake activity and associated performance changes for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Space Biology Element: None
Space Biology Cross-Element Discipline: None
Space Biology Special Category: None
PI Email: basner@pennmedicine.upenn.edu  Fax:  215-573-6410 
PI Organization Type: UNIVERSITY  Phone: 215-573-5866  
Organization Name: University of Pennsylvania 
PI Address 1: Dept. of Psychiatry, Div. of Sleep and Chronobiology 
PI Address 2: 1013 Blockley Hall 
PI Web Page:  
City: Philadelphia  State: PA 
Zip Code: 19104  Congressional District: 
Comments:  
Project Type: GROUND  Solicitation:  2010 Crew Health NNJ10ZSA003N 
Start Date: 10/01/2011  End Date:  09/30/2015 
No. of Post Docs: No. of PhD Degrees: 
No. of PhD Candidates: No. of Master' Degrees: 
No. of Master's Candidates: No. of Bachelor's Degrees: 
No. of Bachelor's Candidates: Monitoring Center:  NSBRI 
Contact Monitor:   Contact Phone:   
Contact Email:  
Flight Program:  
Flight Assignment:

 

Key Personnel Changes/Previous PI:  
COI Name (Institution): Gur, Ruben   ( University of Pennsylvania Health System )
Dinges, David   ( University of Pennsylvania )
Mollicone, Daniel   ( Pulsar Informatics, Inc. )
Mott, Christopher   ( Pulsar Informatics, Inc. ) 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-NBPF02501 
Performance Goal No.:  
Performance Goal Text:

 

Task Description: ORIGINAL PROJECT AIMS/OBJECTIVES

This project addresses the NSBRI Human Factors and Performance Team goal to develop tools to assess crew performance in real-time and evaluate countermeasures to mitigate the effects of fatigue, circadian misalignment, and work-overload. It has secondary relevance to the Neurobehavioral and Psychosocial Factors and Sensorimotor Adaptation Teams. It is responsive to the critical need to identify how a range of cognitive functions of astronauts can be affected in space flight by fatigue alone, its interaction with other risk factors and conditions (e.g., elevated CO2, intracranial pressure, space fog), and countermeasures. The project will deliver a comprehensive, software-based, neurocognitive toolkit. By building on state-of-the-art neuropsychological test development, the toolkit will permit evaluation of a full range of cognitive functions using brief (1-5 min), validated procedures. The tests include - but go beyond - what is currently measured by WinSCAT and the Reaction Self Test on ISS. Importantly, the toolkit will permit rapid assessment of performance in cognitive, social-emotional, and sensorimotor domains. Real-time performance assessment algorithms will be individualized to each astronaut's norm, and adjusted for learning using a data modeling approach, in order to optimize individual and team performance relative to the effects of fatigue and related cognitive impacts. The toolkit will facilitate identification of underlying neural mechanisms affected when cognitive deficits are identified, by using tests selected on the basis of published fMRI studies that identify the specific brain regions subserved by each test. Toolkit development will begin at TRL 5/CRL 6, and progress from laboratory, to data acquisition in astronauts at JSC, to ISS (TRL 7/CRL 8). The resulting comprehensive, neuroscience-validated, cognitive test battery for real-time evaluation of astronauts in space will be an essential detection technology for effective fatigue countermeasure management of astronaut performance in space. The link to neuroscience will yield directions for mechanisms of cause and potential interventions.

The project has the following 5 specific aims: Specific Aim 1: Development of short-duration adaptive versions of CATS neuropsychological tests for spaceflight; Specific Aim 2: Establish learning curves for CATS neuropsychological tests and validate sensitivity to sleep deprivation; Specific Aim 3: CATS Toolkit software development and optimization for spaceflight; Specific Aim 4: JSC field testing, astronaut learning curves, and astronaut norms for performance feedback algorithm development; Specific Aim 5: International Space Station (ISS) feasibility study.

KEY FINDINGS

Excellent progress was made in developing the NeuroCATS software platform and integrating already existing and newly developed tests (Aim 3). The first full version was launched in November 2012 and deployed in the laboratory studies at the University of Pennsylvania (Aim 2). Since then, 25 subjects have completed the test battery (all 10 tests) between 13 and 15 times each. We expect to gather NeuroCATS data on up to 80 more subjects in these NIH and ONR funded sleep deprivation protocols in the remaining two years of the protocol. One important finding from these tests completed so far is that, after some initial training, NeuroCATS administration takes less time than 20 min on average and is only 4 minutes longer than WinSCAT administration (although NeuroCATS has twice the number of tests). Preliminary analyses show that all 10 NeuroCATS tests seem to be sensitive to the effects of acute total sleep deprivation (Aim 2). We continued to work on even briefer, adaptive versions of the different NeuroCATS tests (Aim 1). For example, 100 Drexel University students categorized all available 600 stimuli of the Emotion Recognition test for course credit. With this information we established the difficulty and validity of each item. We started gathering normative data in astronauts while in training at JSC (Aim 4). We are currently investigating 12 mission controllers at JSC, who are performing the NeuroCATS battery 15 times total, with a 1 to 2 week interval between tests. These data will be compared to the data of up to 12 astronauts, that will also perform NeuroCATS 15 times. The data will be used to start building a normative data base, to establish learning curves and to gather user feedback for each NeuroCATS test. We are also preparing the ISS feasibility study in N=6 astronauts in close collaboration with ISS-MP (Aim 5). NeuroCATS is scheduled to launch with increment 41/42 in September 2014. For the ISS mission, "NeuroCATS" was re-named by NASA to "Cognition."

IMPACT OF KEY FINDINGS ON HYPOTHESES, TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS, OBJECTIVES AND SPECIFIC AIMS OF THE ORIGINAL PROPOSAL

Data acquisition in mission controllers and astronauts at JSC (instead of during NEEMO missions) was found to be feasible. With NSBRI approval, the number of astronauts investigated during ISS missions was reduced from 8 to 6.

PROPOSED RESEARCH PLAN FOR THE COMING YEAR

The development of adaptive and/or shorter versions of the individual NeuroCATS tests will continue in year 3 of the protocol. We will continue gathering NeuroCATS data in the sleep restriction studies running at the University of Pennsylvania. Data acquisition at JSC (N=12 mission controllers and N=12 astronauts) will finish in year 3. Based on the findings of this study, the battery will be refined and finalized before operational testing on ISS starts at the end of year 3.

 

Rationale for HRP Directed Research:

 

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The project will have substantial impact on progress in three major areas relevant to the needs of NASA and state of the knowledge. 1. NeuroCATS will markedly enhance astronauts' and flight physicians' ability to quickly (real-time) and objectively evaluate the neurocognitive status of astronauts relative to activities that can induce fatigue in space (i.e., acute sleep loss from prolonged duty, chronic sleep restriction, inadequate recovery sleep, slam shifts and circadian misalignment, high physical and/or cognitive workloads, EVAs, etc.); relative to fatigue countermeasures (e.g., different sleep-wake schedules, sleep-promoting and wake-promoting medications, light exposure for circadian entrainment and acute alertness, etc.); and relative to symptom reports of fatigue associated with occult neurobehavioral risks in space (e.g., space fog, space asthenia/neurasthenia). 2. NeuroCATS will permit identification of important fatigue-related individual differences (i.e., differential vulnerability) in the nature and severity of cognitive performance deficits (e.g., from deficits in spatial orientation, to working memory, to abstract reasoning, to risk decision-making) during space flight, in a comprehensive and precise manner to permit optimal targeting of fatigue countermeasures to specific individuals, and to help predict the performance capability of individual astronauts relative to specific space flight tasks (i.e., align cognitive performance readiness relative to the need to conduct specific space flight tasks). 3. NeuroCATS will help in the medical identification and treatment management course of neurologically-based performance deficits in space flight due to environmental stressors (e.g., exposure to high CO2, hypoxia, radiation); medically urgent events (e.g., head injury, papilledema and/or the possibility of elevated intracranial pressure [ICP], etc.); and neurobehavioral conditions brought on by prolonged stays in space (e.g., time in confinement, neural remodeling from sensorimotor alterations, affective disorders). Although the NeuroCATS test battery is primarily developed for space flight, it will be a valuable tool in many Earth-based patient and non-patient population settings, where identification of suboptimal cognitive performance is important for safe operations (e.g., truck drivers, operators of heavy machinery) or for tracking therapeutic effectiveness. NeuroCATS will be optimized for repeated administration, a feature that many of the currently available test batteries are lacking.

 

Task Progress: Specific Aim 1 (Development of short-duration adaptive versions of CATS neuropsychological tests for space flight): We continued to work on even briefer, adaptive versions of the different NeuroCATS tests (aim 1). For example, 100 Drexel University students categorized all available 600 stimuli of the Emotion Recognition test for course credit. With this information we established the difficulty and validity of each item.

Specific Aim 2 (Establish learning curves for CATS neuropsychological tests and validate sensitivity to sleep deprivation): The first full version was launched in November 2012 and deployed in the laboratory studies at the University of Pennsylvania (Aim 2). Since then, 25 subjects have completed the test battery (all 10 tests) between 13 and 15 times each. We expect to gather NeuroCATS data on up to 80 more subjects in these NIH and ONR funded sleep deprivation protocols in the remaining two years of the protocol. One important finding from these tests completed so far is that, after some initial training, NeuroCATS administration takes less time than 20 min on average and is only 4 minutes longer than WinSCAT administration (although NeuroCATS has twice the number of tests). Preliminary analyses show that all 10 NeuroCATS tests seem to be sensitive to the effects of acute total sleep deprivation (Aim 2).

Specific Aim 3 (CATS Toolkit software development and optimization for space flight): Excellent progress was made in developing the NeuroCATS software platform and integrating already existing and newly developed tests (Aim 3). The first full version was launched in November 2012 and deployed in the laboratory studies at the University of Pennsylvania (Aim 2) and in the study on mission controllers and astronauts at JSC (Aim 4).

Specific Aim 4 (JSC field testing, astronaut learning curves, and astronaut norms for performance feedback algorithm development): We started gathering normative data in astronauts while in training at JSC (Aim 4). We are currently investigating 12 mission controllers at JSC, who are performing the NeuroCATS battery 15 times total, with a 1 to 2 week interval between tests. These data will be compared to the data of up to 12 astronauts, that will also perform NeuroCATS 15 times. The data will be used to start building a normative data base, to establish learning curves and to gather user feedback for each NeuroCATS test.

Specific Aim 5 (International Space Station (ISS) feasibility study): We are also preparing the ISS feasibility study in N=6 astronauts in close collaboration with ISS-MP (aim 5). NeuroCATS is scheduled to launch with increment 41/42 in September 2014.

 

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 06/04/2018) Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Abstracts for Journals and Proceedings Schneiderman JS, Gur RC, Dinges DF, Mollicone DJ, Mott CG, McCann T, Roberts ZT, Hansen J, Savitt AP, Basner M. "Individualized Neurocognitive Assessment Toolkit for Spaceflight Fatigue (NeuroCATS)." SLEEP 2013—27th Associated Professional Sleep Societies LLC (APSS) Annual Meeting, Baltimore, MD, June 1-5, 2013.

Sleep. 2013;36(Abstract Suppl):A64. Abstract 0168. http://www.journalsleep.org/Resources/Documents/2013AbstractSupplement.pdf , Jun-2013

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Goel N, Basner M, Rao H, Dinges DF. "Circadian rhythms, sleep deprivation, and human performance." Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2013;119:155-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-396971-2.00007-5 ; PubMed PMID: 23899598 , Jan-2013
Download in PDF pdf     
Fiscal Year: FY 2013  Task Last Updated:  10/19/2012 
PI Name: Basner, Mathias  M.D., Ph.D. 
Project Title: Individualized Real-Time Neurocognitive Assessment Toolkit for Space Flight Fatigue 
   
Division Name: Human Research 
Program/Discipline--
Element/Subdiscipline:
NSBRI--Neurobehavioral and Psychosocial Factors Team 
 
Joint Agency Name:   TechPort:  Yes 
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
 (2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed02:We need to identify and validate measures to monitor behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions to determine acceptable thresholds for these measures (IRP Rev F)
 (2) Sleep Gap 01:We need to identify a set of validated and minimally obtrusive tools to monitor and measure sleep-wake activity and associated performance changes for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Space Biology Element: None
Space Biology Cross-Element Discipline: None
Space Biology Special Category: None
PI Email: basner@pennmedicine.upenn.edu  Fax:  215-573-6410 
PI Organization Type: UNIVERSITY  Phone: 215-573-5866  
Organization Name: University of Pennsylvania 
PI Address 1: Dept. of Psychiatry, Div. of Sleep and Chronobiology 
PI Address 2: 1013 Blockley Hall 
PI Web Page:  
City: Philadelphia  State: PA 
Zip Code: 19104  Congressional District: 
Comments:  
Project Type: GROUND  Solicitation:  2010 Crew Health NNJ10ZSA003N 
Start Date: 10/01/2011  End Date:  09/30/2015 
No. of Post Docs: No. of PhD Degrees: 
No. of PhD Candidates: No. of Master' Degrees: 
No. of Master's Candidates: No. of Bachelor's Degrees: 
No. of Bachelor's Candidates: Monitoring Center:  NSBRI 
Contact Monitor:   Contact Phone:   
Contact Email:  
Flight Program:  
Flight Assignment:

 

Key Personnel Changes/Previous PI:  
COI Name (Institution): Gur, Ruben   ( University of Pennsylvania Health System )
Dinges, David   ( University of Pennsylvania )
Mollicone, Daniel   ( Pulsar Informatics, Inc. )
Mott, Christopher   ( Pulsar Informatics, Inc. ) 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-NBPF02501 
Performance Goal No.:  
Performance Goal Text:

 

Task Description: ORIGINAL PROJECT AIMS/OBJECTIVES

This project addresses the NSBRI Human Factors and Performance Team goal to develop tools to assess crew performance in real-time and evaluate countermeasures to mitigate the effects of fatigue, circadian misalignment and work-overload. It has secondary relevance to the Neurobehavioral and Psychosocial Factors and Sensorimotor Adaptation Teams. It is responsive to the critical need to identify how a range of cognitive functions of astronauts can be affected in space flight by fatigue alone, its interaction with other risk factors and conditions (e.g., elevated CO2, intracranial pressure, space fog), and countermeasures. The project will deliver a comprehensive, software-based, neurocognitive toolkit. By building on state-of-the-art neuropsychological test development, the toolkit will permit evaluation of a full range of cognitive functions using brief (1-5 min), validated procedures. The tests include - but go beyond - what is currently measured by WinSCAT and the Reaction Self Test on ISS. Importantly, the toolkit will permit rapid assessment of performance in cognitive, social-emotional and sensorimotor domains. Real-time performance assessment algorithms will be individualized to each astronaut's norm, and adjusted for learning using a data modeling approach, in order to optimize individual and team performance relative to the effects of fatigue and related cognitive impacts. The toolkit will facilitate identification of underlying neural mechanisms affected when cognitive deficits are identified, by using tests selected on the basis of published fMRI studies that identify the specific brain regions subserved by each test. Toolkit development will begin at TRL 5/CRL 6, and progress from laboratory, to space analog (NEEMO), to ISS (TRL 7/CRL 8). The resulting comprehensive, neuroscience-validated, cognitive test battery for real-time evaluation of astronauts in space will be an essential detection technology for effective fatigue countermeasure management of astronaut performance in space. The link to neuroscience will yield directions for mechanisms of cause and potential interventions.

The project has the following 5 specific aims: Specific Aim 1: Development of short-duration adaptive versions of CATS neuropsychological tests for spaceflight; Specific Aim 2: Establish learning curves for CATS neuropsychological tests and validate sensitivity to sleep deprivation; Specific Aim 3: CATS Toolkit software development and optimization for spaceflight; Specific Aim 4: JSC field testing, astronaut learning curves, and astronaut norms for performance feedback algorithm development; Specific Aim 5: International Space Station (ISS) feasibility study.

KEY FINDINGS

New items for the Matrix Reasoning Test were developed and tested for their usability in an adaptive version of the test. The Conditional Exclusion Test was replaced by the Abstraction and Working Memory (AIM) Task, as the latter is more suitable for repeated administration. We published a paper on an adaptive duration version of the PVT, and the same methods can be applied to many of the NeuroCATS tests after baseline data for astronauts are available. Using already existing test versions, the 10 NeuroCATS tests were inserted into 2 sleep restriction protocols currently underway at the University of Pennsylvania. Thus far, we recorded 290 full test batteries in 19 subjects. We wrote a specific software that visualizes test data immediately after acquisition. One important finding from these tests completed so far is that, after some initial training, NeuroCATS administration takes less time than expected (ca. 30 min for the whole battery). The current test software will be replaced by the CATS Toolkit software in year 2 of the protocol. Excellent progress was made in developing the CATS toolkit software platform and integrating already existing and newly developed tests. The first full version will be launched in the beginning of year 2 and deployed both in the laboratory studies at the University of Pennsylvania (Aim 2) and in the astronaut study at JSC (Aim 4). The Conditional Exclusion Task was replaced with another abstraction task (AIM, Glahn et al., 1999) with higher suitability for repeated administration. In this process, 1,000 AIM stimuli were piloted in 16 students. Instead of participating in 3 NEEMO missions, we are planning to have N=20 astronauts or astronaut candidates perform the NeurCATS battery 15 times to start building a normative data base, and to establish learning curves and gather astronaut feedback for each NeuroCATS test.

IMPACT OF KEY FINDINGS ON HYPOTHESES, TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS, OBJECTIVES AND SPECIFIC AIMS OF THE ORIGINAL PROPOSAL

We were not able to get access to astronauts in NEEMO, and accordingly changed specific aim 3 with NSBRI approval. We will now investigate astronauts and astronaut candidates while preparing for missions at JSC. Data from our laboratory studies showed that the Conditional Exclusion Test is not adequate for repeated administration. It was thus replaced by the AIM, which taps into the same cognitive domain (abstraction).

PROPOSED RESEARCH PLAN FOR THE COMING YEAR

The development of adaptive and/or shorter versions of the individual NeuroCATS tests will continue in year 2. In the sleep restriction studies running at the University of Pennsylvania, the current NeuroCATS software will be replaced with the CATS toolkit software. Data acquisition at JSC (N=20 astronauts) is projected to start in year 2 of the protocol. Based on the findings of this study, the battery will be refined and finalized before operational testing on ISS starts in years 3 and 4 of the protocol.

 

Rationale for HRP Directed Research:

 

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: The project will have substantial impact on progress in three major areas relevant to the needs of NASA and state of the knowledge. 1. NeuroCATS will markedly enhance astronauts' and flight physicians' ability to quickly (real-time) and objectively evaluate the neurocognitive status of astronauts relative to activities that can induce fatigue in space (i.e., acute sleep loss from prolonged duty, chronic sleep restriction, inadequate recovery sleep, slam shifts and circadian misalignment, high physical and/or cognitive workloads, EVAs, etc.); relative to fatigue countermeasures (e.g., different sleep-wake schedules, sleep-promoting and wake-promoting medications, light exposure for circadian entrainment and acute alertness, etc.); and relative to symptom reports of fatigue associated with occult neurobehavioral risks in space (e.g., space fog, space asthenia/neurasthenia). 2. NeuroCATS will permit identification of important fatigue-related individual differences (i.e., differential vulnerability) in the nature and severity of cognitive performance deficits (e.g., from deficits in spatial orientation, to working memory, to abstract reasoning, to risk decision-making) during space flight, in a comprehensive and precise manner to permit optimal targeting of fatigue countermeasures to specific individuals, and to help predict the performance capability of individual astronauts relative to specific space flight tasks (i.e., align cognitive performance readiness relative to the need to conduct specific space flight tasks). 3. NeuroCATS will help in the medical identification and treatment management course of neurologically-based performance deficits in space flight due to environmental stressors (e.g., exposure to high CO2, hypoxia, radiation); medically urgent events (e.g., head injury, papilledema and/or the possibility of elevated intracranial pressure [ICP], etc.); and neurobehavioral conditions brought on by prolonged stays in space (e.g., time in confinement, neural remodeling from sensorimotor alterations, affective disorders). Although the NeuroCATS test battery is primarily developed for space flight, it will be a valuable tool in many earth-based patient and non-patient population settings, where identification of suboptimal cognitive performance is important for safe operations (e.g., truck drivers, operators of heavy machinery) or for tracking therapeutic effectiveness. NeuroCATS will be optimized for repeated administration, a feature that many of the currently available test batteries are lacking.

 

Task Progress: Specific Aim 1 (Development of short-duration adaptive versions of CATS neuropsychological tests for spaceflight): New items for the Matrix Reasoning Test were developed and tested for their usability in an adaptive version of the test. The Conditional Exclusion Test was replaced by the Abstraction and Working Memory (AIM) Task, as the latter is more suitable for repeated administration. We published a paper on an adaptive duration version of the PVT, and the same methods can be applied to many of the NeuroCATS tests after baseline data for astronauts are available.

Specific Aim 2 (Establish learning curves for CATS neuropsychological tests and validate sensitivity to sleep deprivation): Using already existing test versions, the 10 NeuroCATS tests were inserted into 2 sleep restriction protocols currently underway at the University of Pennsylvania. Thus far, we recorded 290 full test batteries in 19 subjects. We wrote a specific software that visualizes test data immediately after acquisition. One important finding from these tests completed so far is that, after some initial training, NeuroCATS administration takes less time than expected (ca. 30 min for the whole battery). The current test software will be replaced by the CATS Toolkit software in year 2 of the protocol.

Specific Aim 3 (CATS Toolkit software development and optimization for spaceflight): Excellent progress was made in developing the CATS toolkit software platform and integrating already existing and newly developed tests. The first full version will be launched in the beginning of year 2 and deployed both in the laboratory studies at the University of Pennsylvania (Aim 2) and in the astronaut study at JSC (Aim 4). The Conditional Exclusion Task was replaced with another abstraction task (AIM, Glahn et al., 1999) with higher suitability for repeated administration. In this process, 1,000 AIM stimuli were piloted in 16 students.

Specific Aim 4 (JSC field testing, astronaut learning curves, and astronaut norms for performance feedback algorithm development): Instead of participating in 3 NEEMO missions, we are planning to have N=20 astronauts or astronaut candidates perform the NeurCATS battery 15 times to start building a normative data base, and to establish learning curves and gather astronaut feedback for each NeuroCATS test. We plan to start this study in year 2 of the protocol.

Specific Aim 5 (International Space Station (ISS) feasibility study): Baseline data collection will start in year 3 of the protocol. First contact with ISSMP has been established.

 

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 06/04/2018) Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing
 
Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals Basner M, Dinges DF. "An adaptive-duration version of the PVT accurately tracks changes in psychomotor vigilance induced by sleep restriction." Sleep. 2012 Feb 1;35(2):193-202. PubMed PMID: 22294809 ; http://dx.doi.org/10.5665/sleep.1620 , Feb-2012
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Fiscal Year: FY 2012  Task Last Updated:  10/05/2011 
PI Name: Basner, Mathias  M.D., Ph.D. 
Project Title: Individualized Real-Time Neurocognitive Assessment Toolkit for Space Flight Fatigue 
   
Division Name: Human Research 
Program/Discipline--
Element/Subdiscipline:
NSBRI--Neurobehavioral and Psychosocial Factors Team 
 
Joint Agency Name:   TechPort:  Yes 
Human Research Program Elements: (1) HFBP:Human Factors & Behavioral Performance (IRP Rev H)
Human Research Program Risks: (1) Bmed:Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders
 (2) Sleep:Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (IRP Rev F)
Human Research Program Gaps: (1) BMed02:We need to identify and validate measures to monitor behavioral health and performance during exploration class missions to determine acceptable thresholds for these measures (IRP Rev F)
 (2) Sleep Gap 01:We need to identify a set of validated and minimally obtrusive tools to monitor and measure sleep-wake activity and associated performance changes for spaceflight (IRP Rev E)
Space Biology Element: None
Space Biology Cross-Element Discipline: None
Space Biology Special Category: None
PI Email: basner@pennmedicine.upenn.edu  Fax:  215-573-6410 
PI Organization Type: UNIVERSITY  Phone: 215-573-5866  
Organization Name: University of Pennsylvania 
PI Address 1: Dept. of Psychiatry, Div. of Sleep and Chronobiology 
PI Address 2: 1013 Blockley Hall 
PI Web Page:  
City: Philadelphia  State: PA 
Zip Code: 19104  Congressional District: 
Comments:  
Project Type: GROUND  Solicitation:  2010 Crew Health NNJ10ZSA003N 
Start Date: 10/01/2011  End Date:  09/30/2015 
No. of Post Docs:   No. of PhD Degrees:   
No. of PhD Candidates:   No. of Master' Degrees:   
No. of Master's Candidates:   No. of Bachelor's Degrees:   
No. of Bachelor's Candidates:   Monitoring Center:  NSBRI 
Contact Monitor:   Contact Phone:   
Contact Email:  
Flight Program:  
Flight Assignment:

 

Key Personnel Changes/Previous PI:  
COI Name (Institution): Dinges, David   ( University of Pennsylvania )
Gur, Ruben   ( University of Pennsylvania Health System )
Mott, Christopher   ( Pulsar Informatics, Inc. )
Mollicone, Daniel   ( Pulsar Informatics, Inc. ) 
Grant/Contract No.: NCC 9-58-NBPF02501 
Performance Goal No.:  
Performance Goal Text:

 

Task Description: This project addresses the NSBRI Human Factors and Performance Team goal to develop tools to assess crew performance in real-time and evaluate countermeasures to mitigate the effects of fatigue, circadian misalignment and work-overload. It has secondary relevance to the Neurobehavioral and Psychosocial Factors and Sensorimotor Adaptation Teams. It is responsive to the critical need to identify how a range of cognitive functions of astronauts can be affected in space flight by fatigue alone, its interaction with other risk factors and conditions (e.g., elevated CO2, intracranial pressure, space fog), and countermeasures. The project will deliver a comprehensive, software-based, neurocognitive toolkit. By building on state-of-the-art neuropsychological test development, the toolkit will permit evaluation of a full range of cognitive functions using brief (1-5 min), validated procedures. The tests include, but go beyond, what is currently measured by WinSCAT and the Reaction Self Test on ISS. Importantly, the toolkit will permit rapid assessment of performance in cognitive, social-emotional and sensorimotor domains. Real-time performance assessment algorithms will be individualized to each astronaut's norm, and adjusted for learning using a data modeling approach, in order to optimize individual and team performance relative to the effects of fatigue and related cognitive impacts. The toolkit will facilitate identification of underlying neural mechanisms affected when cognitive deficits are identified, by using tests selected on the basis of published fMRI studies that identify the specific brain regions subserved by each test. Toolkit development will begin at TRL 5/CRL 6, and progress from laboratory, to space analog (NEEMO), to ISS (TRL 7/CRL 8). The resulting comprehensive, neuroscience-validated, cognitive test battery for real-time evaluation of astronauts in space will be an essential detection technology for effective fatigue countermeasure management of astronaut performance in space. The link to neuroscience will yield directions for mechanisms of cause and potential interventions.

 

Rationale for HRP Directed Research:

 

Research Impact/Earth Benefits: 0

 

Task Progress: New project for FY2012.

 

Bibliography Type: Description: (Last Updated: 06/04/2018) Show Cumulative Bibliography Listing